Weight drives caspofungin pharmacokinetic variability in overweight and obese people: Fractal power signatures beyond two-thirds or three-fourths

Ronald G. Hall, Mark A. Swancutt, Claudia Meek, Richard Leff, Tawanda Gumbo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Scopus citations

Abstract

Echinocandins, such as caspofungin, are commonly used to treat candidemia and aspergilllosis. Success rates for candidemia treatment are approximately 70%. Dose optimization may further help improve these success rates, given that the microbial effect of these agents is concentration dependent. There are conflicting data as regards the effect of weight and/or obesity on caspofungin drug concentrations. We designed a prospective study to evaluate the population pharmacokinetics of caspofungin in adults with a weight difference range of 100 kg. Caspofungin pharmacokinetics were best described using a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model. There were 18 subjects studied, of whom half were women. The central volume was typically 4.2 liters but increased by a factor of (weight/53.6)3/4. The peripheral compartment volume was typically 2.53 liters but increased by a factor of (weight/53.6)3/2, an unusual power law signature. Similarly, the 3/4 power law best described the relationship between weight and systemic clearance for persons weighing>66.3 kg, whereas intercompartmental clearance was best described by the 3/2 power signature. There are two implications of our findings. First, lower caspofungin area-under-the- concentration-time curves are achieved in obese persons than thinner ones. This suggests that dose optimization in heavier patients may improve clinical success rates. Second, the 3/2 exponent is unusual in fractal geometry-based scaling and warrants further study. Moreover, this suggests that use of a "floating" instead of a fixed exponent may be more useful in studies where weight is under investigation as a potential cause of pharmacokinetic variability within adult patients. (This study protocol was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov under registration number NCT01062165.)

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2259-2264
Number of pages6
JournalAntimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Volume57
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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