As a result of the recognized training that they provide for urologists, France and the USA both participate in the development and innovation of this specialty. However, there are many differences between the two systems. Medical training is not organized in the same way. Americans must obtain a University Master's degree before entering medical school and selection by entrance examinations at the end of the first year and at internship is specific to France. In the USA, admission to a urology training programme is based on national matching, in which the candidate's personality and career are at least as important as his or her examination results. Residency lasts for about the same duration as in France. General surgical training is more succinct. Residency ends with a year of Chief Resident, which validates the practical training. A registrar position is not systematic. Residents can complete their training by a specialized fellowship (endourology, oncology, urogynaecology...) when they are planning a university career. Residents receive a very good intellectual education throughout their training, designed to prepare them for the Board certification which validates their training and authorizes them to practice. Finally, the possibility to conduct research in parallel with clinical practice is probably one of the greatest advantages of the American system which benefits from greater resources and a particularly effective organization. French and American training programmes are not organized in the same way for cultural, social and economic reasons. It would no doubt be beneficial to consider the positive aspects of transatlantic training to improve and maintain the excellence of French urology.
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