Background: Some, but not all, patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and kidney stone disease (KSD) are cured of their nephrolithiasis after parathyroidectomy. The goal of this study was to identify risk factors for recurrent KSD despite successful parathyroidectomy in known stone formers with PHPT. Study design: We conducted a single-center retrospective review of patients presenting to urology clinic with KSD between January 2008 and July 2018, who were diagnosed with concurrent PHPT, and underwent definitive parathyroidectomy. Laboratory testing for serum calcium, PTH (parathyroid hormone), phosphorus and 25-OH-vitamin D, and 24-hour urine studies for volume, pH, calcium, citrate, oxalate, uric acid, sodium, and creatinine was performed pre- and post-parathyroidectomy. Stone recurrence was determined on routine diagnostic imaging or by symptomatic KSD. Results: Mean age at parathyroidectomy was 57 ± 14 years. Pre-parathyroidectomy, mean serum calcium, 24-hour urine calcium, and PTH were 10.6 ± 0.5 mg/dL, 378 ± 209 mg/day, and 114 ± 97 pg/mL, respectively. Twenty-six of 69 patients (38%) had multigland parathyroid disease. After parathyroidectomy, serum calcium and PTH levels normalized in 69 of 69 and 62 of 69 patients, respectively. However, 37 of 69 patients (54%) had persistent hypercalciuria postoperatively, and 16 of 69 (23%) had recurrent KSD, on average, 2.0 ± 1.6 years after parathyroidectomy. Patients with recurrent KSD post-parathyroidectomy were significantly younger compared with patients without recurrent KSD (51 ± 15 vs 60 ± 13 years, p = 0.02). In a logistic regression model, younger age remains a strong predictive factor for recurrent KSD. Conclusions: Nearly one-quarter of PHPT patients with KSD who undergo successful parathyroidectomy present with recurrent KSD despite normalization of serum calcium, and more than half exhibit persistent calciuria. These patients were younger and may require closer monitoring for stone recurrence after successful parathyroidectomy. Further studies are needed to better identify the etiology of KSD post-parathyroidectomy.
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