α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is an endogenous anti- inflammatory cytokine that inhibits all major forms of inflammation. α-MSH level is increased at sites of r inflammation in humans, and is produced in the pituitary and in macrophages. The effects of α-MSH are mediated by c melanocortin receptors found on macrophages, neutrophils, and renal tubules. α-MSH inhibited ischemic acute renal r failure in mice and rats, even when started 6 h after injury. α-MSH acts, in part, by inhibiting the maladaptive activation of genes that cause inflammatory and cytotoxic renal injury. However, α-MSH is effective even in the absence of neutrophils, suggesting that α-MSH also acts directly on renal tubules.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine