OBJECTIVE - To assess b-cell function preservation after 3.5 years of intensive therapy with insulin plus metformin (INS group) versus triple oral therapy (TOT group) with metformin, glyburide, and pioglitazone. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - This was a randomized trial of 58 patients with treatment-naïve newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. All patients were treated with insulin and metformin for a 3-month lead-in period followed by random assignment to the INS or TOT group. β-Cell function was assessed using amixed-meal challenge test at randomization and 6, 12, 18, 30, and 42 months. Analyses were intention to treat and performed with repeated-measures models. RESULTS - Completion rates at 3.5 years were 83% in the insulin group and 72% in the TOT group, with good compliance in both groups (87 ± 20% in the INS group vs. 90 ± 15% in the TOT group). β-Cell function was preserved at 3.5 years after diagnosis, with no significant change from baseline or difference between the two groups as measured by area under the curve (AUC) of C-peptide (P = 0.14) or the ratio of C-peptide to glucose AUC (P = 0.7). Excellent glycemic control was maintained in both groups (end-of-study HbA 1c 6.35 ± 0.84% in the INS group vs. 6.59 ± 1.94% in the TOT group). Weight increased in both groups over time (from 102.2 ± 24.9 kg to 106.2 ± 31.7 kg in the INS group and from 100.9 ± 23.0 kg to 110.5 ± 31.8 kg in the TOT group), with no significant difference between groups (P = 0.35). Hypoglycemic events decreased significantly over time (P = 0.01) but did not differ between groups (P = 0.83). CONCLUSIONS - β-Cell function can be preserved for at least 3.5 years with early and intensive therapy for type 2 diabetes with either insulin plus metformin or triple oral therapy after an initial 3-month insulin-based treatment period.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing