β-Lapachone and certain of its derivatives directly bind and inhibit topoisomerase I (Topo I) DNA unwinding activity and form DNA-Topo I complexes, which are not resolvable by SDS-K+ assays. We show that β-lapachone can induce apoptosis in certain cells, such as in human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) and human prostate cancer (DU-145, PC-3, and LNCaP) cells, as also described by Li et al (Cancer Res., 55: 0000-0000,1995). Characteristic 180-200-bp oligonucleosome DNA laddering and fragmented DNA-containing apoptotic cells via flow cytometry and morphological examinations were observed in 4 h in HL-60 cells after a 4-h, 2265;0.5 um β-lapachone exposure. HL-60 cells treated with camptothecin or topotecan resulted in greater apoptotic DNA laddering and apoptotic cell populations than comparable equitoxic concentrations of β-lapachone, although β-lapachone was a more effective Topo I inhibitor. β-Lapachone treatment (4 h, 1-5 μm) resulted in a block at G0/G1 with decreases in S and G2/M phases and increases in apoptotic cell populations over time in HL-60 and three separate human prostate cancer (DU-145, PC-3, and LNCaP) cells. Similar treatments with topotecan or camptothecin (4 h, 1-5 μm) resulted in blockage of cells in S and apoptosis. Thus, β-lapachone causes a block in G0/G1 of the cell cycle and induces apoptosis in cells before, or at early times during, DNA synthesis. These events are p53 independent, since PC-3 and HL-60 cells are null cells, LNCaP are wild-type, and DU-145 contain mutant p53, yet all undergo apoptosis after β-lapachone treatment Interestingly, β-lapachone treatment of p53 wild type-containing prostate cancer cells (i.e., LNCaP) did not result in the induction of nuclear levels of p53 protein, as did camptothecin-treated cells. Like other Topo I inhibitors, 0-lapachone may induce apoptosis by locking Topo I onto DNA, blocking replication fork movement, and inducing apoptosis in a p53-independent fashion. 0-Lapachone and its derivatives, as well as other Topo I inhibitors, have potential clinical utility alone against human leukemia and prostate cancers.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|State||Published - Sep 1 1995|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research