β-Lapachone-mediated Apoptosis in Human Promyelocytic Leukemia (HL-60) and Human Prostate Cancer Cells: A p53-independent Response

S. M. Planchon, S. Wuerzberger, B. Frydman, D. T. Witiak, P. Hutson, D. R. Church, G. Wilding, D. A. Boothman

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211 Scopus citations

Abstract

β-Lapachone and certain of its derivatives directly bind and inhibit topoisomerase I (Topo I) DNA unwinding activity and form DNA-Topo I complexes, which are not resolvable by SDS-K+ assays. We show that β-lapachone can induce apoptosis in certain cells, such as in human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) and human prostate cancer (DU-145, PC-3, and LNCaP) cells, as also described by Li et al (Cancer Res., 55: 0000-0000,1995). Characteristic 180-200-bp oligonucleosome DNA laddering and fragmented DNA-containing apoptotic cells via flow cytometry and morphological examinations were observed in 4 h in HL-60 cells after a 4-h, 2265;0.5 um β-lapachone exposure. HL-60 cells treated with camptothecin or topotecan resulted in greater apoptotic DNA laddering and apoptotic cell populations than comparable equitoxic concentrations of β-lapachone, although β-lapachone was a more effective Topo I inhibitor. β-Lapachone treatment (4 h, 1-5 μm) resulted in a block at G0/G1 with decreases in S and G2/M phases and increases in apoptotic cell populations over time in HL-60 and three separate human prostate cancer (DU-145, PC-3, and LNCaP) cells. Similar treatments with topotecan or camptothecin (4 h, 1-5 μm) resulted in blockage of cells in S and apoptosis. Thus, β-lapachone causes a block in G0/G1 of the cell cycle and induces apoptosis in cells before, or at early times during, DNA synthesis. These events are p53 independent, since PC-3 and HL-60 cells are null cells, LNCaP are wild-type, and DU-145 contain mutant p53, yet all undergo apoptosis after β-lapachone treatment Interestingly, β-lapachone treatment of p53 wild type-containing prostate cancer cells (i.e., LNCaP) did not result in the induction of nuclear levels of p53 protein, as did camptothecin-treated cells. Like other Topo I inhibitors, 0-lapachone may induce apoptosis by locking Topo I onto DNA, blocking replication fork movement, and inducing apoptosis in a p53-independent fashion. 0-Lapachone and its derivatives, as well as other Topo I inhibitors, have potential clinical utility alone against human leukemia and prostate cancers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3706-3711
Number of pages6
JournalCancer research
Volume55
Issue number17
StatePublished - Sep 1 1995

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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    Planchon, S. M., Wuerzberger, S., Frydman, B., Witiak, D. T., Hutson, P., Church, D. R., Wilding, G., & Boothman, D. A. (1995). β-Lapachone-mediated Apoptosis in Human Promyelocytic Leukemia (HL-60) and Human Prostate Cancer Cells: A p53-independent Response. Cancer research, 55(17), 3706-3711.