Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is the retrograde passage of gastric contents into the esophagus. It is a physiologic condition that is common in neonates, typically resolves spontaneously, and does not result in clinically significant complications. When pathologic, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can cause numerous complications including persistent emesis, failure to thrive, aspiration, and respiratory symptoms. While a diagnosis can often be made from a thorough history and physical, some patients may require further testing. In general, many clinicians will reserve extensive investigation such as multiple intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring for patients with a confounding clinical picture or relative contraindications to medical or surgical management. Whereas most pediatric GER resolves spontaneously, medical management including lifestyle changes, changes to feeds, and the use of H2-antagonists and/or proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) can be utilized to alleviate symptoms. Surgical treatment is reserved for patients who are refractory to medical management or have suffered significant complications as a consequence of GER. In this article we seek to provide a concise but detailed review of recent updates in the understanding, work up and management of GER in the pediatric patient. A summary of new technologies used in the diagnostic and therapeutic arms of this disease are included.
- Gastroesophageal reflux (GER)
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
ASJC Scopus subject areas