Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) produces attaching and effacing lesions (AE) on epithelial cells. The genes involved in the formation of the AE lesions are contained within a pathogenicity island named the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). The LEE comprises 41 open reading frames organized in five major operons: LEE1, LEE2, LEE3, LEE4 and tir: The first gene of the LEE1 operon encodes a transcription activator of the other LEE operons that is called the LEE-encoded regulator (Ler). The LEE2 and LEE3 operons are divergently transcribed with overlapping -10 promoter regions, and gene fusion studies have shown that they are both activated by Ler. Deletion analysis, using lacZ reporter fusions, of the LEE2 and LEE3 promoters demonstrated that deletions extending closer to the LEE2 transcription start site than -247 bp lead to loss of activation by Ler, whereas only 70 bp upstream of the LEE3 transcription start site is required for Ler-mediated activation. We have purified Let as a His-tagged protein and used it to perform DNA-binding assays with LEE2 and LEE3. We observed that Ler bound to a DNA fragment containing the -300 to +1 region of LEE2; however, it failed to bind to a DNA fragment containing the -300 to +1 region of LEE3, suggesting that Ler activates both operons by only binding to the regulatory region upstream of LEE2. The Ler-activatable LEE3::lacZ fusions extended to what would be -246 bp of the LEE2 operon. A lacZ fusion from the -300 to +1 region of LEE3 failed to be activated by Ler, consistent with our hypothesis that Ler activates the expression of LEE2 and LEE3 by binding to a region located downstream of the LEE3 transcription start site. DNase I footprinting revealed that Ler protected a region of 121 bp upstream of LEE2. Purified Ler mutated in the coiled-coil domain was unable to activate transcription and to bind to the LEE2 regulatory region. These data indicate that Ler may bind as a multimer to LEE2 and activate both divergent operons by a novel mechanism potentially involving changes in the DNA structure.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology