Innate immune signals mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been thought to contribute considerably to the antibody-enhancing effects of vaccine adjuvants. However, we report here that mice deficient in the critical signaling components for TLR mount robust antibody responses to T cell-dependent antigen given in four typical adjuvants: alum, Freund's complete adjuvant, Freund's incomplete adjuvant, and monophosphoryl-lipid A/trehalose dicorynomycolate adjuvant. We conclude that TLR signaling does not account for the action of classical adjuvants and does not fully explain the action of a strong adjuvant containing a TLR ligand. This may have important implications in the use and development of vaccine adjuvants.
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