Alendronate, vitamin D, and calcium for the treatment of osteopenia/osteoporosis associated with HIV infection

Kristin Mondy, William G. Powderly, Sherry A. Claxton, Kevin H. Yarasheski, Michael Royal, John S. Stoneman, Mary E. Hoffmann, Pablo Tebas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

110 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Osteopenia and osteoporosis are frequent complications of HIV infection and/or its treatment. Alendronate is the only bisphosphonate approved for the treatment of osteoporosis in men and women. We conducted a 48-week prospective, randomized. open-label study to evaluate the effects of alendronate, vitamin D, and calcium supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with HIV infection. Methods: Thirty-one HIV-infected subjects with lumbar spine BMD t-scores less than -1.0 on antiretroviral therapy for a minimum of 6 months were randomized to receive (n = 15) or not to receive (n = 16) 70 mg of alendronate weekly for 48 weeks. All subjects received calcium (1000 mg daily as calcium carbonate) and vitamin D supplementation (400 IU daily). The study was powered to detect 3% changes in BMD in the lumbar spine within arms at 48 weeks. Results: Thirty-one patients were enrolled; most were male, with an average length of HIV infection of 8 years. Eighty-four percent had an HIV RNA load below 400 copies/mL, with a current median CD4- T-cell count of 561 cells/mm3 (median nadir CD4 cell count of 167 cells/mm3). At baseline, the median t-score in the lumbar spine was -1.52 and the median t-score in the hip was -1.02. Alendronate in combination with vitamin D and calcium increased lumbar spine BMD by 5.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-6.4) at 48 weeks compared with an increase of 1.3% (95% CI: -2.4 to 4.0) in subjects receiving vitamin D and calcium alone. One subject discontinued treatment in each arm. There were no serious adverse events. Conclusions: Alendronate, vitamin D, and calcium are safe and potentially useful in the treatment of osteopenia/osteoporosis associated with HIV infection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)426-431
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Volume38
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2005

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Keywords

  • Alendronate
  • HIV
  • Osteoporosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Immunology

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