The LNCaP/C4-2 human prostate cancer progression model was established to mimic phenotypic and genotypic changes during prostate cancer development from androgen dependence to androgen independence, from nonmetastasis to metastasis. In this study, cDNA microarrays were performed using a microarray chip from Affymetrix to characterize and compare gene expression profiles in LNCaP and C4-2, which may provide novel insight into the molecular mechanism mediating prostate cancer progression. Three hundred eighteen genes consistently exhibited differential expression in LNCaP and C4-2 in 2-time microarray data. Based on their function, the differentially expressed genes can be grouped into several subcategories, including growth factors and signal transducers, oncogenes and tumor suppressors, tumorspecific antigens, transcriptional factors, transporters, and factors involved in invasion, metastasis, and metabolism. Some genes are novel and unexplored in prostate cancer progression and are of potential interest for follow-up investigation. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR were performed to corroborate the microarray results, and 76 differentially expressed genes were validated out of 104 candidates. Expression pattern analyses were performed in these 76 differentially expressed genes, and a series of genes was found to be positively or negatively correlated to prostate cancer progression in the LNCaP prostate cancer progression model and to possess predominant prostate cell specificity. ELF5/ESE-2b and long-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ACADL) expressions were found to be positively associated with malignant progression in LNCaP, C4-2, and C4-2B, and predominantly expressed in prostate cancer cells. Functional evaluation revealed that ELF5/ESE-2b and ACADL expressions contributed to the malignant phenotypes of prostate cancer cells. Accordingly, our microarray data may provide clues for finding novel genes involved in prostate cancer progression to androgen independent and metastasis, and shed light on finding new targets for diagnosis and therapy of prostate cancer.
- cDNA microarray
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Reproductive Medicine