Background: Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines recommend empiric antipseudomonal combination therapy when Pseudomonas is suspected. However, combination antipseudomonal therapy is controversial. This study compares all-cause 30-day mortality in older patients who received antipseudomonal monotherapy (PMT) or antipseudomonal combination therapy (PCT) for the treatment of community-onset pneumonia. Methods: This population-based, retrospective cohort study used data from over 150 Veterans Health Administration hospitals. Patients were classified as being at low, medium, or high risk of drug-resistant pathogens. In total, 31,027 patients were assigned to PCT or PMT treatment arms based on antibiotics received in the first 48hours of hospital admission. Results: The unadjusted 30-day mortality difference between PCT and PMT was most pronounced in the low-risk group (18% vs 8%), followed by the medium-risk group (24% vs 18%) and then the high-risk group (39% vs 33%). PCT was associated with higher 30-day mortality than PMT overall (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-1.66) in all 3 risk groups: low (aOR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.50-1.89), medium (aOR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.14-1.48), and high (aOR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.04-1.40). Conclusions: Older adults who received combination antipseudomonal therapy for community-onset pneumonia fared worse than those who received monotherapy. Empiric combination antipseudomonal therapy should not be routinely offered to all patients suspected of having pseudomonal pneumonia.
- Risk score
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health Policy
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Infectious Diseases