Objective: To better understand the experiences of female and underrepresented minority (URM) medical students pursuing urology and determine if discrimination was perceived at any point during the application process. Methods: After the rank list submission deadline (January 2, 2020), we emailed an anonymous survey to all 353 applicants to our institution for the 2020 AUA Residency Match (80.0% of applicants nationally). The survey inquired about their experiences pursuing urology and the residency match process. Ordinal regression models were used to identify any significant predictors of survey responses. Results: One hundred ninety applicants (136 male [72%], 54 female [28%]) completed the survey. A significantly higher percentage of females vs males noted discrimination (odds ratio: 2.53; confidence interval: 1.37-4.74, Fig. 1). URM students also reported higher frequencies of discrimination than non-URM students (odds ratio: 2.27; confidence interval: 1.07-4.83). Thirty-two percent of respondents tested positive on the Maslach Burnout Inventory; we did not identify any predictors of burnout. Higher proportions of female residents, faculty and leadership at a particular program had a more favorable impact on the rank lists of female applicants compared with males. Higher proportions of URM residents, faculty and leadership at a particular program had a more favorable impact on the rank lists of URM applicants compared with non-URM. Conclusion: Our collective findings suggest that URM and female medical students have less favorable experiences interacting with urology trainees and faculty than do their nonminority and male counterparts. Higher percentages of female and URM urology residents and faculty promote effective recruitment of female and URM applicants.
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