Based on the conducted anatomic studies at our institutions as well as clinical experience with migraine surgery, we have refined our onobotulinumtoxin A (BOTOX®) injection techniques. Pain management physicians are in unique position to be able to not only treat migraine patient, but also to be able to collaborate with neurologists and peripheral nerve surgeons in identifying the migraine trigger sites prior to surgical deactivation. The constellation of migraine symptoms that aid in identifying the migraine trigger sites, the potential pathophysiology of each trigger site, the effective methods of botulinumtoxin and nerve block injection for diagnostic and treatment purposes, as well as the pitfalls and potential complications, will be addressed and discussed in this paper.
- Migraine Disorders
- Onabotulinumtoxin A
- Trigger points
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine