Beyond the Bruce Protocol: Advanced Exercise Testing for the Sports Cardiologist

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Exercise testing is an important tool for determining baseline fitness as well as to diagnose limitations in performance. The Bruce protocol has become the standard for exercise testing protocol in many exercise physiology laboratories, but is rarely a suitable test for athletes who often have complex hemodynamic and metabolic demands during exercise required for practice and competition. We describe the approach for exercise testing beyond the Bruce protocol and focus on strategies to individualize the testing protocol to the metabolic demands of an athlete's sport.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)603-608
Number of pages6
JournalCardiology clinics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 1 2016


  • Bruce protocol
  • Exercise
  • Sports cardiology
  • VO

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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