Biomechanics of differences in lower facial height

Gaylord S. Throckmorton, Richard A. Finn, William H. Bell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

156 Scopus citations


A two-dimensional model which allows calculation of mechanical advantage of the human temporalis and masseter muscles is presented. The model is manipulated to demonstrate how selected differences in facial morphology affect the mechanical advantage of the muscles. The model is then used to evaluate the differences in mechanical advantage between patients with the long face syndrome and those with the short face syndrome. Differences in facial morphology between these two groups result in significant differences in the mechanical advantages of their muscles. Mechanical advantage may, in part, explain observed differences in bite force between the two groups. The model suggests that some surgical procedures used to correct facial disharmonies may have a significant effect on the mechanical advantage of the jaw muscles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)410-420
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Orthodontics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1980


  • Biomechanics
  • bite force
  • facial height
  • masticating muscles
  • maxillofacial surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)


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