Body fluid biomarkers in multiple sclerosis: How far we have come and how they could affect the clinic now and in the future

Itay Raphael, Johanna Webb, Olaf Stuve, William Haskins, Thomas Forsthuber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Scopus citations


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, which affects over 2.5 million people worldwide. Although MS has been extensively studied, many challenges still remain in regards to treatment, diagnosis and prognosis. Typically, prognosis and individual responses to treatment are evaluated by clinical tests such as the expanded disability status scale, MRI and presence of oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid. However, none of these measures correlates strongly with treatment efficacy or disease progression across heterogeneous patient populations and subtypes of MS. Numerous studies over the past decades have attempted to identify sensitive and specific biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment efficacy of MS. The objective of this article is to review and discuss the current literature on body fluid biomarkers in MS, including research on potential biomarker candidates in the areas of miRNA, mRNA, lipids and proteins.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)69-91
Number of pages23
JournalExpert Review of Clinical Immunology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2014



  • autoimmunity
  • biomarker
  • experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
  • multiple sclerosis
  • prognosis
  • therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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