Cardiovascular sequelae from COVID-19: Perspectives from a paediatric cardiac ICU

Javier J. Lasa, Alexander Alali, Marc Anders, Sebastian C. Tume, Eyal Muscal, S. Kristen Sexson Tejtel, Lara Shekerdemian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: Paediatric ICUs have shared the burden of the COVID-19 pandemic, including subspecialty cardiac ICUs. We sought to address knowledge gaps regarding patient characteristics, acuity, and sequelae of COVID-19 in the paediatric cardiac ICU setting. Design: Retrospective review of paediatric cardiac ICU admissions with COVID-19-related disease. Setting: Single centre tertiary care paediatric cardiac ICU. Patients: All patients with PCR/antibody evidence of primary COVID-19 infection, and/or Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children, were admitted between 26 March, 2020 and 31 March, 2021. Interventions: None. Main outcomes measures: Patient-level demographics, pre-existing conditions, clinical symptoms, and outcomes related to ICU admission were captured from medical records. Results: Among 1064 patients hospitalised with COVID-19/Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children, 102 patients (9.5%) were admitted to cardiac ICU, 76 of which were symptomatic (median age 12.5 years [IQR 7.5-16.0]). The primary system involved at presentation was cardiovascular in 48 (63%). Vasoactive infusions were required in 62% (n = 47), with eight patients (11%) requiring VA ECMO. Severity of disease was categorised as mild/moderate in 16 (21%) and severe/critical in 60 patients (79%). On univariate analysis, African-American race, presentation with gastrointestinal symptoms or elevated inflammatory markers were associated with risk for severe disease. All-cause death was observed in five patients (7%, n = 5/72) with four patients remaining hospitalised at the time of data query. Conclusion: COVID-19 and its cardiovascular sequelae were associated with important morbidity and significant mortality in a notable minority of paediatric patients admitted to a paediatric cardiac ICU. Further study is required to quantify the risk of morbidity and mortality for COVID-19 and sequelae.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalCardiology in the Young
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • cardiac ICU
  • COVID-19
  • intensive care
  • MIS-C
  • paediatric

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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