The development of cluster of differentiation (CD)-19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells for the treatment of pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is an exciting new advancement in the field of pediatric oncology. Tisagenlecleucel and axicabtagene ciloleucel are the first US FDA-approved CD19-targeted CAR T cells. While various different CD19 CAR T cells are in development, tisagenlecleucel is the only CAR T cell approved for pediatric patients. The multicenter phase II trial that led to the approval of tisagenlecleucel demonstrated excellent responses in individuals with highly refractory disease. Other high-risk groups of patients with B-ALL who experience poor outcomes with standard therapy may also benefit from treatment with tisagenlecleucel. After receiving CAR T cells, patients must be closely monitored for unique toxicities, including cytokine release syndrome, neurotoxicity, and B-cell aplasia. The management of patients with relapsed or refractory disease after administration of CD19 CAR T cells can be challenging, and treatment options vary according to the characteristics of the disease present at relapse. In the many patients who experience a complete response, CAR T cells can lead to a durable remission. This review describes the current design and manufacturing of CAR T cells. Data in the selection and management of pediatric patients are highlighted, as are areas where further studies are needed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Pharmacology (medical)