OBJECTIVE: We sought to test the performance of three strategies for binary classification (logistic regression, support vector machines, and deep learning) for the problem of predicting successful episodic memory encoding using direct brain recordings obtained from human stereo EEG subjects. We also sought to test the impact of applying t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (tSNE) for unsupervised dimensionality reduction, as well as testing the effect of reducing input features to a core set of memory relevant brain areas. This work builds upon published efforts to develop a closed-loop stimulation device to improve memory performance. APPROACH: We used a unique data set consisting of 30 stereo EEG patients with electrodes implanted into a core set of five common brain regions (along with other areas) who performed the free recall episodic memory task as brain activity was recorded. Using three different machine learning strategies, we trained classifiers to predict successful versus unsuccessful memory encoding and compared the difference in classifier performance (as measured by the AUC) at the subject level and in aggregate across modalities. We report the impact of feature reduction on the classifiers, including reducing the number of input brain regions, frequency bands, and the impact of tSNE. RESULTS: Deep learning classifiers outperformed both support vector machines (SVM) and logistic regression (LR). A priori selection of core brain regions also improved classifier performance for LR and SVM models, especially when combined with tSNE. SIGNIFICANCE: We report for the first time a direct comparison among traditional and deep learning methods of binary classification to the problem of predicting successful memory encoding using human brain electrophysiological data. Our findings will inform the design of brain machine interface devices to affect memory processing.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience