Context. - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been associated with an increasing incidence of malignancy, and HIV-infected persons have an increased incidence of primary lung carcinoma compared with the general population. Objective. - To investigate the molecular changes present in HIV-associated lung tumors and compare them with those present in lung carcinomas arising in HIV-indeterminate subjects ('sporadic tumors'). Design. - Convenience sample. Subjects. - Archival tissues from 11 HIV- positive persons and from 35 persons of indeterminate HIV status. Setting. - University-based medical centers and affiliated hospitals. Main Outcome Measures. - Analysis of frequency of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite alteration (MA) using polymerase chain reaction and 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers at 8 chromosomal regions frequently deleted in lung cancer. Presence of HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV) sequences. Results. - The overall frequency of LOH at all chromosomal regions tested and the frequencies at most of the individual regions were similar in the 2 groups. Frequency of MA present in the HIV-associated tumors (0.18) was 6-fold higher than in sporadic tumors (0.03) (P<.001). At least 1 MA was present in 10 (91%) of 11 HIV-associated tumors vs 17 (48%) of 35 sporadic tumors (P=.02). Molecular changes were independent of tumor stage and gender. HIV and HPV sequences were not detected in the HIV-associated lung carcinomas. Conclusions. - Microsatellite alterations, which reflect widespread genomic instability, occur at greatly increased frequency in HIV- associated lung carcinomas. Although the mechanism underlying the development of increased MAs is unknown, it may play a crucial role in the development of many HIV-associated tumors.
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