During a 22-month period 35 children with cystic fibrosis received 52 courses of antibiotic therapy for acute pulmonary exacerbations, including 26 cases of therapy with piperacillin and 26 courses with ticarcillin plus tobramycin. Groups were similar in age (5 vs. 5.4 years), disease severity based on Schwachman scores and presenting symptoms. Pseudomonas aeru-ginosa was the most common organism isolated in 90% of sputum cultures. Mean minimal inhibitory concentrations for piperacillin, ticarcillin and tobramycin were 8, 64 and 1 Mg/ml, respectively. Piperacillin pharmacokinetic data revealed an average half-life in serum of 36 minutes. Peak serum concentrations averaged 144 Mg/ml, and after 4 hours serum concentrations continued to exceed the P. aeruginosa 90% minimal inhibitory concentration in 50% of children. The dosage requirement for tobramycin was quite variable, necessitated monitoring of aminoglycoside serum concentrations and in most cases resulted in at least one dosage ad-justment. Emergence of resistant bacteria was not seen in 26 courses of piperacillin therapy. Both regimens were effective and well-toler-ated. Single agent therapy has the advantage of providing reliable serum concentrations and, in contrast to the standard therapy, does not necessitate monitoring of serum drug concentrations.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Microbiology (medical)