The International Society of Nephrology has adopted a proactive approach to defining the current state of kidney care and unmet needs through a multifaceted Closing the Gaps initiative. As part of this initiative, the International Society of Nephrology convened a meeting of experts to develop an approach to tackle acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease (CKD). This manuscript expands on the recently published International Society of Nephrology CKD Roadmap and reports on the discussions of the working group assigned to the task of reviewing the global impact of complication of CKD. The working group defined the following goals: Goal 1: Optimize the management of anemia and endocrine and metabolic abnormalities associated with CKD. The impact of these conditions at a global level is not well understood, particularly in regions where renal replacement therapy is not readily available. Some treatment regimens may be affordable in low- and middle-income countries and if implemented, could have an impact on the burden of suffering associated with CKD. Goal 2: Improve the prevention and management of cardiovascular complications linked to CKD. Most research on cardiovascular complications of CKD has focused on atherosclerotic diseases (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and peripheral gangrene). There has been growing recognition that other forms of cardiovascular diseases, such as heart failure, valvular disease and arrhythmias, have a major impact on patient outcomes. Much less is known about the mechanisms and treatment of these non-atherosclerotic complications. Goal 3: Improve the diagnosis and management of symptoms associated with CKD. Symptom management is one of the greatest challenges in the management of CKD, with limited knowledge about the mechanisms associated with the development of these common problems and how best to characterize them into usable clinical phenotypes. Improved understanding of the complications of CKD may alleviate suffering and prolong life among millions of people worldwide both in developed countries and in regions where renal replacement therapy is not widely available.
- knowledge gaps
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