Ultrasound (US) has been increasingly used as an important imaging tool to assess the urethra in children. The earliest reports of pediatric urethral sonography involved imaging the urethra in a non-voiding state, during physiological voiding of urine, and after instillation of saline. The introduction of US contrast agents has continued to improve visualization of urethral anatomy. Contrast-enhanced US of the urethra can be performed during the voiding phase of a standard contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography (ceVUS) exam or with retrograde instillation of a contrast agent, depending on the exam indication. Both techniques are well tolerated by children and provide accurate information about urethral pathology and periurethral soft tissues. This article reviews the technical aspects and imaging findings of urethral pathologies in children using contrast-enhanced US, both by the voiding and retrograde instillation techniques.
- Contrast-enhanced retrograde urethrosonography
- Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography
- Ultrasound contrast agents
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging