Objective To evaluate the age-stratified prevalence of upper tract urothelial malignancies diagnosed on computed tomography urography in a large cohort of patients referred for initial evaluation of hematuria. Materials and Methods A total of 1123 consecutive adults without a history of urothelial cancer underwent initial computed tomography urography for gross hematuria (n = 652), microscopic hematuria (n = 457), or unspecified hematuria (n = 14) at a single institution from October 2006 to October 2012. Imaging findings suggestive of urothelial lesions were correlated with clinical information, including cystoscopy, cytology, and surgical pathology reports. Patients subsequently diagnosed with urothelial cancer following a normal radiographic evaluation were identified and analyzed. Age, gender, smoking history, and location and type of malignancy were analyzed. Results Upper tract urothelial cancer was detected in 4 (0.36%) patients, with a mean age of 66.5 years. All 4 patients presented with gross hematuria and were current or former smokers. None of the 535 patients under age 55 who underwent computed tomography urography were diagnosed with upper tract disease regardless of age, smoking history, or degree of hematuria. Likewise, no upper tract cancers were detected in patients referred for microscopic hematuria, regardless of age. Conclusion Detection of upper tract urothelial cancer by computed tomography urography is exceedingly rare in patients presenting at a tertiary referral center with hematuria, particularly in the lower risk strata (younger age, microscopic hematuria). Further investigation into risk-stratified approaches to imaging for hematuria workup is warranted to minimize unnecessary costs and radiation exposure.
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