Determining Etiology of Facial Nerve Paralysis With MRI: Challenges in Malignancy Detection

Anthony M. Tolisano, Jacob Boston Hunter, Mark Sakai, Joe W Kutz, William A Moore, Marco Da Cunha Pinho, Brandon Isaacson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: Compare experts’ ability to differentiate malignant and benign causes of facial nerve paralysis (FNP) using the initial presenting magnetic resonance image (MRI) for each patient. Methods: This retrospective case-controlled study compared MRIs for 9 patients with a malignant cause for FNP, 8 patients with Bell’s palsy, and 9 cochlear implant patients serving as controls. The initial presenting MRI for each condition was used such that raters were evaluating real-world rather than optimal studies. Three blinded expert raters independently evaluated each segment of the facial nerve for abnormalities, provided a diagnosis, and graded MRI quality. Cohen’s and Light’s kappa were used to calculate interrater reliability and overall index of agreement, respectively. Results: MRI protocols for the malignancy group were universally suboptimal. There was poor agreement among raters for abnormalities of the facial nerve along the brainstem (0.13), geniculate (0.10), tympanic segment (0.12), and mastoid segment (0.13); moderate agreement along the cisternal segment (0.58) and internal auditory canal (0.55); and fair agreement along the labyrinthine segment (0.26) and extratemporal segment (0.36). Agreement regarding final diagnosis was fair (0.37) when compared to the true diagnosis. There were 2 false negative interpretations (failure to correctly identify malignancy) and 1 false positive interpretation. Conclusion: MRI for FNP is often initially performed with an incorrect protocol and thus may fail to reliably differentiate neoplastic from inflammatory FNP even when interpreted by experienced clinicians. Nevertheless, expert readers correctly diagnosed 87.5% of malignant causes of FNP despite these limitations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAnnals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Facial Paralysis
Facial Nerve
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Neoplasms
Bell Palsy
Mastoid
Cochlear Implants
Brain Stem
Light

Keywords

  • Bell’s palsy
  • facial nerve paralysis
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • malignancy
  • miscellaneous
  • otolaryngology
  • otology
  • radiology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology

Cite this

@article{270d0acce9694471b2ec0ae8c709fa99,
title = "Determining Etiology of Facial Nerve Paralysis With MRI: Challenges in Malignancy Detection",
abstract = "Objective: Compare experts’ ability to differentiate malignant and benign causes of facial nerve paralysis (FNP) using the initial presenting magnetic resonance image (MRI) for each patient. Methods: This retrospective case-controlled study compared MRIs for 9 patients with a malignant cause for FNP, 8 patients with Bell’s palsy, and 9 cochlear implant patients serving as controls. The initial presenting MRI for each condition was used such that raters were evaluating real-world rather than optimal studies. Three blinded expert raters independently evaluated each segment of the facial nerve for abnormalities, provided a diagnosis, and graded MRI quality. Cohen’s and Light’s kappa were used to calculate interrater reliability and overall index of agreement, respectively. Results: MRI protocols for the malignancy group were universally suboptimal. There was poor agreement among raters for abnormalities of the facial nerve along the brainstem (0.13), geniculate (0.10), tympanic segment (0.12), and mastoid segment (0.13); moderate agreement along the cisternal segment (0.58) and internal auditory canal (0.55); and fair agreement along the labyrinthine segment (0.26) and extratemporal segment (0.36). Agreement regarding final diagnosis was fair (0.37) when compared to the true diagnosis. There were 2 false negative interpretations (failure to correctly identify malignancy) and 1 false positive interpretation. Conclusion: MRI for FNP is often initially performed with an incorrect protocol and thus may fail to reliably differentiate neoplastic from inflammatory FNP even when interpreted by experienced clinicians. Nevertheless, expert readers correctly diagnosed 87.5{\%} of malignant causes of FNP despite these limitations.",
keywords = "Bell’s palsy, facial nerve paralysis, magnetic resonance imaging, malignancy, miscellaneous, otolaryngology, otology, radiology",
author = "Tolisano, {Anthony M.} and Hunter, {Jacob Boston} and Mark Sakai and Kutz, {Joe W} and Moore, {William A} and {Da Cunha Pinho}, Marco and Brandon Isaacson",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1177/0003489419848462",
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journal = "Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology",
issn = "0003-4894",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Determining Etiology of Facial Nerve Paralysis With MRI

T2 - Challenges in Malignancy Detection

AU - Tolisano, Anthony M.

AU - Hunter, Jacob Boston

AU - Sakai, Mark

AU - Kutz, Joe W

AU - Moore, William A

AU - Da Cunha Pinho, Marco

AU - Isaacson, Brandon

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Objective: Compare experts’ ability to differentiate malignant and benign causes of facial nerve paralysis (FNP) using the initial presenting magnetic resonance image (MRI) for each patient. Methods: This retrospective case-controlled study compared MRIs for 9 patients with a malignant cause for FNP, 8 patients with Bell’s palsy, and 9 cochlear implant patients serving as controls. The initial presenting MRI for each condition was used such that raters were evaluating real-world rather than optimal studies. Three blinded expert raters independently evaluated each segment of the facial nerve for abnormalities, provided a diagnosis, and graded MRI quality. Cohen’s and Light’s kappa were used to calculate interrater reliability and overall index of agreement, respectively. Results: MRI protocols for the malignancy group were universally suboptimal. There was poor agreement among raters for abnormalities of the facial nerve along the brainstem (0.13), geniculate (0.10), tympanic segment (0.12), and mastoid segment (0.13); moderate agreement along the cisternal segment (0.58) and internal auditory canal (0.55); and fair agreement along the labyrinthine segment (0.26) and extratemporal segment (0.36). Agreement regarding final diagnosis was fair (0.37) when compared to the true diagnosis. There were 2 false negative interpretations (failure to correctly identify malignancy) and 1 false positive interpretation. Conclusion: MRI for FNP is often initially performed with an incorrect protocol and thus may fail to reliably differentiate neoplastic from inflammatory FNP even when interpreted by experienced clinicians. Nevertheless, expert readers correctly diagnosed 87.5% of malignant causes of FNP despite these limitations.

AB - Objective: Compare experts’ ability to differentiate malignant and benign causes of facial nerve paralysis (FNP) using the initial presenting magnetic resonance image (MRI) for each patient. Methods: This retrospective case-controlled study compared MRIs for 9 patients with a malignant cause for FNP, 8 patients with Bell’s palsy, and 9 cochlear implant patients serving as controls. The initial presenting MRI for each condition was used such that raters were evaluating real-world rather than optimal studies. Three blinded expert raters independently evaluated each segment of the facial nerve for abnormalities, provided a diagnosis, and graded MRI quality. Cohen’s and Light’s kappa were used to calculate interrater reliability and overall index of agreement, respectively. Results: MRI protocols for the malignancy group were universally suboptimal. There was poor agreement among raters for abnormalities of the facial nerve along the brainstem (0.13), geniculate (0.10), tympanic segment (0.12), and mastoid segment (0.13); moderate agreement along the cisternal segment (0.58) and internal auditory canal (0.55); and fair agreement along the labyrinthine segment (0.26) and extratemporal segment (0.36). Agreement regarding final diagnosis was fair (0.37) when compared to the true diagnosis. There were 2 false negative interpretations (failure to correctly identify malignancy) and 1 false positive interpretation. Conclusion: MRI for FNP is often initially performed with an incorrect protocol and thus may fail to reliably differentiate neoplastic from inflammatory FNP even when interpreted by experienced clinicians. Nevertheless, expert readers correctly diagnosed 87.5% of malignant causes of FNP despite these limitations.

KW - Bell’s palsy

KW - facial nerve paralysis

KW - magnetic resonance imaging

KW - malignancy

KW - miscellaneous

KW - otolaryngology

KW - otology

KW - radiology

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