Early-life exposure to antibiotics, alterations in the intestinal microbiome, and risk of metabolic disease in children and adults

Sushmita G. Yallapragada, Colleen B. Nash, Daniel T. Robinson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Scopus citations


The intestinal microbiome is a complex ecosystem of microorganisms that colonize the human gastrointestinal tract. The microbiome evolves rapidly in early life with contributions from diet, genetics and immunomodulatory factors. Changes in composition of the microbiota due to antibiotics may lead to negative long-term effects including obesity and diabetes mellitus, as evidenced by both animal and large human studies. Inappropriate exposures to antibiotics occur frequently in early childhood. Therefore, an evidence-based system of antimicrobial use should be employed by all providers, especially those who care for pediatric patients. This article explores the natural evolution of the intestinal microbiome from the perinatal period into early childhood, the effect of antibiotics on the microbial ecology, and the implications for future health and disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e265-e269
JournalPediatric Annals
Issue number11
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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