9 Scopus citations


Purpose: To develop echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) with large spectral width and accomplish high-resolution imaging of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) at 7 T. Methods: We designed a new EPSI readout scheme at 7 T. Data were recorded with dual-readout alternated gradients and combined according to the gradient polarity. Following validation of its performance in phantoms, the new readout scheme, together with previously reported 2HG-optimized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (point-resolved spectroscopy echo time of 78 ms), was used for time-efficient and high-resolution imaging of 2HG and other metabolites in five glioma patients before treatment. Unsuppressed water, acquired with EPSI, was used as reference for multichannel combination, eddy-current compensation, and metabolite quantification. Spectral fitting was conducted with the LCModel using in-house calculated basis sets. Results: Using a readout gradient strength of 9.5 mT/m and slew rate of 90 mT/m/ms, dual-readout alternated gradients EPSI permitted 1638-Hz spectral width with 6 × 6 mm2 in-plane resolution at 7 T. Phantom data indicated that dual-readout alternated gradients EPSI provides proper metabolite signals and induces much less frequency drifts than conventional EPSI. For a spatial resolution of 0.5 mL, 2HG was detected in tumors with precision (Cramer-Rao lower bound < 10%). The 2HG was estimated to be 2.3 to 3.3 mM in tumors of three patients with biopsy-proven isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant gliomas. The 2HG was undetectable in an IDH wild-type glioblastoma. For a radiographically suggested glioma, the estimated 2HG of 2.3 ± 0.2 mM (Cramer-Rao lower bound < 10%) indicated that the lesion may be an IDH mutant glioma. Conclusions: The data indicated that the dual-readout alternated gradients EPSI can provide reliable high-resolution imaging of 2HG in glioma patients at 7 T in vivo. Magn Reson Med 79:1851–1861, 2018.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1851-1861
Number of pages11
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2018



  • H MRS
  • 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG)
  • 7T
  • dual-readout alternated-gradients EPSI (DRAG-EPSI)
  • echo-planar spectroscopy imaging (EPSI)
  • glioma
  • human brain tumor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Cite this