Effect of Blood Pressure Control on Long-Term Risk of End-Stage Renal Disease and Death Among Subgroups of Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

Elaine Ku, Mark J. Sarnak, Robert D Toto, Charles E. McCulloch, Feng Lin, Miroslaw Smogorzewski, Chi Yuan Hsu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background Our objective was to explore the effect of intensive blood pressure (BP) control on kidney and death outcomes among subgroups of patients with chronic kidney disease divided by baseline proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate, age, and body mass index. Methods and Results We included 840 MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) trial and 1067 AASK (African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension) participants. We used Cox models to examine whether the association between intensive BP control and risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or death is modified by baseline proteinuria (≥0.44 versus <0.44 g/g), glomerular filtration rate (≥30 versus <30 mL/min per 1.73 m2), age (≥40 versus <40 years), or body mass index (≥30 versus <30 kg/m2). The median follow-up was 14.9 years. Strict (versus usual) BP control was protective against ESRD (hazard ratio [HR]ESRD, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64-0.92) among those with proteinuria ≥0.44 g/g but not proteinuria <0.44 g/g. Strict (versus usual) BP control was protective against death (HRdeath, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.59-0.92) among those with glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min per 1.73 m2 but not glomerular filtration rate ≥30 mL/min per 1.73 m2 (HRdeath, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.84-1.15). Strict (versus usual) BP control was protective against ESRD among those ≥40 years (HRESRD, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71-0.94) but not <40 years. Strict (versus usual) BP control was also protective against ESRD among those with body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 (HRESRD, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61-0.92) but not body mass index <30 kg/m2. Conclusions The ESRD and all-cause mortality benefits of intensive BP lowering may not be uniform across all subgroups of patients with chronic kidney disease. But intensive BP lowering was not associated with increased risk of ESRD or death among any subgroups that we examined.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e012749
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Volume8
Issue number16
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 20 2019

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Chronic Kidney Failure
Blood Pressure
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Proteinuria
Body Mass Index
Chronic Renal Insufficiency
Diet Therapy
Kidney
Kidney Diseases
Proportional Hazards Models
African Americans
Hypertension
Mortality

Keywords

  • chronic kidney disease
  • end‐stage renal disease
  • hypertension
  • mortality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Effect of Blood Pressure Control on Long-Term Risk of End-Stage Renal Disease and Death Among Subgroups of Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease. / Ku, Elaine; Sarnak, Mark J.; Toto, Robert D; McCulloch, Charles E.; Lin, Feng; Smogorzewski, Miroslaw; Hsu, Chi Yuan.

In: Journal of the American Heart Association, Vol. 8, No. 16, 20.08.2019, p. e012749.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ku, Elaine ; Sarnak, Mark J. ; Toto, Robert D ; McCulloch, Charles E. ; Lin, Feng ; Smogorzewski, Miroslaw ; Hsu, Chi Yuan. / Effect of Blood Pressure Control on Long-Term Risk of End-Stage Renal Disease and Death Among Subgroups of Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease. In: Journal of the American Heart Association. 2019 ; Vol. 8, No. 16. pp. e012749.
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AU - Toto, Robert D

AU - McCulloch, Charles E.

AU - Lin, Feng

AU - Smogorzewski, Miroslaw

AU - Hsu, Chi Yuan

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N2 - Background Our objective was to explore the effect of intensive blood pressure (BP) control on kidney and death outcomes among subgroups of patients with chronic kidney disease divided by baseline proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate, age, and body mass index. Methods and Results We included 840 MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) trial and 1067 AASK (African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension) participants. We used Cox models to examine whether the association between intensive BP control and risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or death is modified by baseline proteinuria (≥0.44 versus <0.44 g/g), glomerular filtration rate (≥30 versus <30 mL/min per 1.73 m2), age (≥40 versus <40 years), or body mass index (≥30 versus <30 kg/m2). The median follow-up was 14.9 years. Strict (versus usual) BP control was protective against ESRD (hazard ratio [HR]ESRD, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64-0.92) among those with proteinuria ≥0.44 g/g but not proteinuria <0.44 g/g. Strict (versus usual) BP control was protective against death (HRdeath, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.59-0.92) among those with glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min per 1.73 m2 but not glomerular filtration rate ≥30 mL/min per 1.73 m2 (HRdeath, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.84-1.15). Strict (versus usual) BP control was protective against ESRD among those ≥40 years (HRESRD, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71-0.94) but not <40 years. Strict (versus usual) BP control was also protective against ESRD among those with body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 (HRESRD, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61-0.92) but not body mass index <30 kg/m2. Conclusions The ESRD and all-cause mortality benefits of intensive BP lowering may not be uniform across all subgroups of patients with chronic kidney disease. But intensive BP lowering was not associated with increased risk of ESRD or death among any subgroups that we examined.

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