The effects of cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest on left ventricular systolic and diastolic function were studied in 20 intact neonatal lambs instrumented with ultrasonic dimension transducers and micromanometers for collection of left ventricular pressure-dimension data. Group I lambs underwent 2 hours of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (25° C) alone; group II lambs underwent 2 hours of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (25° C) with 1 hour of multidose, cold, crystalloid cardioplegic arrest (St. Thomas' Hospital No. 2 solution). The control neonatal lamb left ventricle was found to be relatively stiff, with the limit of diastolic filling reached at physiologic left ventricular filling pressures, resulting in apparent descending limbs of left ventricular function. After cardiopulmonary bypass, identical results were obtained in groups I and II. A significant loss of left ventricular compliance limited left ventricular performance via two mechanisms. First, left ventricular preload was significantly decreased, with a concomitant diminution in left ventricular stroke work; afterload (pressure work) was maintained at the expense of volume work (flow), which declined significantly. Second, preload behaved as though fixed, resulting in a loss of impedance matching (afterload mismatch). Although contractility as assessed by the end-systolic pressure-dimension relationship was significantly increased (because of increased levels of circulating catecholamines), global systolic performance as quantified by the stroke work/end-diastolic length relationship remained unchanged, reflecting the afterload sensitivity of the latter parameter in the face of fixed preload. We conclude that cardiopulmonary bypass in the intact neonate results in a loss of compliance and impedance matching rather than a loss of contractility; however, the addition of 1 hour of cold, crystalloid cardioplegic arrest results in no dysfunction beyond that attributable to cardiopulmonary bypass alone.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine