Effects of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism of calcium and other minerals in normal subjects and patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

Abhimanyu Garg, Andrea Bonanome, Scott M Grundy, Roger H Unger, Neil A. Breslau, Charles Y Pak

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Abstract

Transient hypercalciuria has been noted after high carbohydrate meals which is independent of dietary calcium and is probably due to impaired renal calcium reabsorption mediated by an increase in plasma insulin levels. Based on these observations, some investigators believe that long term intake of high carbohydrate diets may increase the risk of nephrolithiasis and possibly osteoporosis. Using a randomized cross-over design, we compared high carbohydrate diets (60% carbohydrate and 25% fat) with high fat diets (50% fat and 35% carbohydrate) for effects on metabolism of calcium and other minerals in eight normal subjects and eight euglycemic patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. All other dietary constituents, such as protein, fiber, fluid, minerals (including Ca, Mg, Na, K, and P), and caffeine intake, were kept constant. Despite higher daylong levels of plasma insulin on the high carbohydrate diets compared to the high fat diet in both normal and noninsulin-dependent diabetic subjects, no changes in daily urinary excretion of calcium or other constituents, associated with renal stone risk, were observed. Furthermore, there was no change in fractional intestinal 47Ca absorption. Although hypercalciuria may ensue transiently after high carbohydrate meals, we conclude that substitution of simple or complex carbohydrates for fats in an isocaloric manner for a longer duration does not result in significant urinary calcium loss, and therefore, high intakes of digestible carbohydrates may not increase the risk of nephrolithiasis or osteoporosis via this mechanism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1007-1013
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume70
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1990

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Dietary Carbohydrates
Carbohydrate Metabolism
Medical problems
Metabolism
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Minerals
Carbohydrates
Calcium
Nutrition
Fats
Hypercalciuria
Nephrolithiasis
High Fat Diet
Diet
Osteoporosis
Meals
Mineral Fibers
Insulin
Plasmas
Dietary Calcium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

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title = "Effects of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism of calcium and other minerals in normal subjects and patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus",
abstract = "Transient hypercalciuria has been noted after high carbohydrate meals which is independent of dietary calcium and is probably due to impaired renal calcium reabsorption mediated by an increase in plasma insulin levels. Based on these observations, some investigators believe that long term intake of high carbohydrate diets may increase the risk of nephrolithiasis and possibly osteoporosis. Using a randomized cross-over design, we compared high carbohydrate diets (60{\%} carbohydrate and 25{\%} fat) with high fat diets (50{\%} fat and 35{\%} carbohydrate) for effects on metabolism of calcium and other minerals in eight normal subjects and eight euglycemic patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. All other dietary constituents, such as protein, fiber, fluid, minerals (including Ca, Mg, Na, K, and P), and caffeine intake, were kept constant. Despite higher daylong levels of plasma insulin on the high carbohydrate diets compared to the high fat diet in both normal and noninsulin-dependent diabetic subjects, no changes in daily urinary excretion of calcium or other constituents, associated with renal stone risk, were observed. Furthermore, there was no change in fractional intestinal 47Ca absorption. Although hypercalciuria may ensue transiently after high carbohydrate meals, we conclude that substitution of simple or complex carbohydrates for fats in an isocaloric manner for a longer duration does not result in significant urinary calcium loss, and therefore, high intakes of digestible carbohydrates may not increase the risk of nephrolithiasis or osteoporosis via this mechanism.",
author = "Abhimanyu Garg and Andrea Bonanome and Grundy, {Scott M} and Unger, {Roger H} and Breslau, {Neil A.} and Pak, {Charles Y}",
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T1 - Effects of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism of calcium and other minerals in normal subjects and patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

AU - Garg, Abhimanyu

AU - Bonanome, Andrea

AU - Grundy, Scott M

AU - Unger, Roger H

AU - Breslau, Neil A.

AU - Pak, Charles Y

PY - 1990/4

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N2 - Transient hypercalciuria has been noted after high carbohydrate meals which is independent of dietary calcium and is probably due to impaired renal calcium reabsorption mediated by an increase in plasma insulin levels. Based on these observations, some investigators believe that long term intake of high carbohydrate diets may increase the risk of nephrolithiasis and possibly osteoporosis. Using a randomized cross-over design, we compared high carbohydrate diets (60% carbohydrate and 25% fat) with high fat diets (50% fat and 35% carbohydrate) for effects on metabolism of calcium and other minerals in eight normal subjects and eight euglycemic patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. All other dietary constituents, such as protein, fiber, fluid, minerals (including Ca, Mg, Na, K, and P), and caffeine intake, were kept constant. Despite higher daylong levels of plasma insulin on the high carbohydrate diets compared to the high fat diet in both normal and noninsulin-dependent diabetic subjects, no changes in daily urinary excretion of calcium or other constituents, associated with renal stone risk, were observed. Furthermore, there was no change in fractional intestinal 47Ca absorption. Although hypercalciuria may ensue transiently after high carbohydrate meals, we conclude that substitution of simple or complex carbohydrates for fats in an isocaloric manner for a longer duration does not result in significant urinary calcium loss, and therefore, high intakes of digestible carbohydrates may not increase the risk of nephrolithiasis or osteoporosis via this mechanism.

AB - Transient hypercalciuria has been noted after high carbohydrate meals which is independent of dietary calcium and is probably due to impaired renal calcium reabsorption mediated by an increase in plasma insulin levels. Based on these observations, some investigators believe that long term intake of high carbohydrate diets may increase the risk of nephrolithiasis and possibly osteoporosis. Using a randomized cross-over design, we compared high carbohydrate diets (60% carbohydrate and 25% fat) with high fat diets (50% fat and 35% carbohydrate) for effects on metabolism of calcium and other minerals in eight normal subjects and eight euglycemic patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. All other dietary constituents, such as protein, fiber, fluid, minerals (including Ca, Mg, Na, K, and P), and caffeine intake, were kept constant. Despite higher daylong levels of plasma insulin on the high carbohydrate diets compared to the high fat diet in both normal and noninsulin-dependent diabetic subjects, no changes in daily urinary excretion of calcium or other constituents, associated with renal stone risk, were observed. Furthermore, there was no change in fractional intestinal 47Ca absorption. Although hypercalciuria may ensue transiently after high carbohydrate meals, we conclude that substitution of simple or complex carbohydrates for fats in an isocaloric manner for a longer duration does not result in significant urinary calcium loss, and therefore, high intakes of digestible carbohydrates may not increase the risk of nephrolithiasis or osteoporosis via this mechanism.

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