Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal neuromuscular disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene (DMD). Previously, we applied CRISPR-Cas9–mediated “single-cut” genome editing to correct diverse genetic mutations in animal models of DMD. However, high doses of adeno-associated virus (AAV) are required for efficient in vivo genome editing, posing challenges for clinical application. In this study, we packaged Cas9 nuclease in single-stranded AAV (ssAAV) and CRISPR single guide RNAs in self-complementary AAV (scAAV) and delivered this dual AAV system into a mouse model of DMD. The dose of scAAV required for efficient genome editing were at least 20-fold lower than with ssAAV. Mice receiving systemic treatment showed restoration of dystrophin expression and improved muscle contractility. These findings show that the efficiency of CRISPR-Cas9–mediated genome editing can be substantially improved by using the scAAV system. This represents an important advancement toward therapeutic translation of genome editing for DMD.
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