Ethnic differences in the prevalence and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors in US outpatients with peripheral arterial disease: Insights from the Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) Registry

Telly A. Meadows, Deepak L. Bhatt, Alan T. Hirsch, Mark A. Creager, Robert M. Califf, E. Magnus Ohman, Christopher P. Cannon, Kim A. Eagle, Mark J. Alberts, Shinya Goto, Sidney C. Smith, Peter W F Wilson, Karol E. Watson, P. Gabriel Steg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: Prior investigations to define ethnic-related differences in the risks, medical treatment, and outcomes of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have been limited. Methods: The impact of ethnicity on the risk factor profiles, use of evidence-based medical therapies, and 2-year cardiovascular outcomes were investigated in 2,168 individuals (blacks n = 237, Hispanics n = 115, whites n = 1,816) from the United States with PAD from the international Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health Registry. Results: Blacks and Hispanics were more likely to have diabetes mellitus and hypertension, whereas whites had a higher rate of diagnosed hypercholesterolemia. Control of blood pressure and cholesterol levels differed significantly in the groups at baseline: elevated blood pressure was present in 55% of blacks versus 48% of Hispanics versus 38% of whites (P < .01), whereas 41% of blacks versus 31% of Hispanics versus 25% of whites had elevated total cholesterol (P < .01). Aspirin use (62% of blacks vs 68% of Hispanics vs 72% of whites, P < .01) and statin use (72% of blacks vs 68% of Hispanics vs 77% of whites, P = .03) also varied significantly. In this context, rates by ethnicity for cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke seemed to be no different at 2 years, at 8.8% for the total population: 11.6% for blacks, 8.5% for whites, and 5.0% for Hispanics (P = .32). Fewer blacks (0.6%) had undergone peripheral arterial bypass surgery compared with whites (3.4%) and Hispanics (5.2%) (P = .02). Conclusions: Ethnic-related differences have been documented in the prevalence and treatment of several atherosclerotic risk factors known to be associated with PAD, including a variation in the use of surgical revascularization procedures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1038-1045
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Heart Journal
Volume158
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2009

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Peripheral Arterial Disease
Hispanic Americans
Registries
Outpatients
Health
Therapeutics
Hypercholesterolemia
Blood Pressure
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
Aspirin
Diabetes Mellitus
Stroke
Myocardial Infarction
Cholesterol
Hypertension
Population

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Ethnic differences in the prevalence and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors in US outpatients with peripheral arterial disease : Insights from the Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) Registry. / Meadows, Telly A.; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Hirsch, Alan T.; Creager, Mark A.; Califf, Robert M.; Ohman, E. Magnus; Cannon, Christopher P.; Eagle, Kim A.; Alberts, Mark J.; Goto, Shinya; Smith, Sidney C.; Wilson, Peter W F; Watson, Karol E.; Steg, P. Gabriel.

In: American Heart Journal, Vol. 158, No. 6, 12.2009, p. 1038-1045.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Meadows, Telly A. ; Bhatt, Deepak L. ; Hirsch, Alan T. ; Creager, Mark A. ; Califf, Robert M. ; Ohman, E. Magnus ; Cannon, Christopher P. ; Eagle, Kim A. ; Alberts, Mark J. ; Goto, Shinya ; Smith, Sidney C. ; Wilson, Peter W F ; Watson, Karol E. ; Steg, P. Gabriel. / Ethnic differences in the prevalence and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors in US outpatients with peripheral arterial disease : Insights from the Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) Registry. In: American Heart Journal. 2009 ; Vol. 158, No. 6. pp. 1038-1045.
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abstract = "Background: Prior investigations to define ethnic-related differences in the risks, medical treatment, and outcomes of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have been limited. Methods: The impact of ethnicity on the risk factor profiles, use of evidence-based medical therapies, and 2-year cardiovascular outcomes were investigated in 2,168 individuals (blacks n = 237, Hispanics n = 115, whites n = 1,816) from the United States with PAD from the international Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health Registry. Results: Blacks and Hispanics were more likely to have diabetes mellitus and hypertension, whereas whites had a higher rate of diagnosed hypercholesterolemia. Control of blood pressure and cholesterol levels differed significantly in the groups at baseline: elevated blood pressure was present in 55{\%} of blacks versus 48{\%} of Hispanics versus 38{\%} of whites (P < .01), whereas 41{\%} of blacks versus 31{\%} of Hispanics versus 25{\%} of whites had elevated total cholesterol (P < .01). Aspirin use (62{\%} of blacks vs 68{\%} of Hispanics vs 72{\%} of whites, P < .01) and statin use (72{\%} of blacks vs 68{\%} of Hispanics vs 77{\%} of whites, P = .03) also varied significantly. In this context, rates by ethnicity for cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke seemed to be no different at 2 years, at 8.8{\%} for the total population: 11.6{\%} for blacks, 8.5{\%} for whites, and 5.0{\%} for Hispanics (P = .32). Fewer blacks (0.6{\%}) had undergone peripheral arterial bypass surgery compared with whites (3.4{\%}) and Hispanics (5.2{\%}) (P = .02). Conclusions: Ethnic-related differences have been documented in the prevalence and treatment of several atherosclerotic risk factors known to be associated with PAD, including a variation in the use of surgical revascularization procedures.",
author = "Meadows, {Telly A.} and Bhatt, {Deepak L.} and Hirsch, {Alan T.} and Creager, {Mark A.} and Califf, {Robert M.} and Ohman, {E. Magnus} and Cannon, {Christopher P.} and Eagle, {Kim A.} and Alberts, {Mark J.} and Shinya Goto and Smith, {Sidney C.} and Wilson, {Peter W F} and Watson, {Karol E.} and Steg, {P. Gabriel}",
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T2 - Insights from the Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) Registry

AU - Meadows, Telly A.

AU - Bhatt, Deepak L.

AU - Hirsch, Alan T.

AU - Creager, Mark A.

AU - Califf, Robert M.

AU - Ohman, E. Magnus

AU - Cannon, Christopher P.

AU - Eagle, Kim A.

AU - Alberts, Mark J.

AU - Goto, Shinya

AU - Smith, Sidney C.

AU - Wilson, Peter W F

AU - Watson, Karol E.

AU - Steg, P. Gabriel

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N2 - Background: Prior investigations to define ethnic-related differences in the risks, medical treatment, and outcomes of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have been limited. Methods: The impact of ethnicity on the risk factor profiles, use of evidence-based medical therapies, and 2-year cardiovascular outcomes were investigated in 2,168 individuals (blacks n = 237, Hispanics n = 115, whites n = 1,816) from the United States with PAD from the international Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health Registry. Results: Blacks and Hispanics were more likely to have diabetes mellitus and hypertension, whereas whites had a higher rate of diagnosed hypercholesterolemia. Control of blood pressure and cholesterol levels differed significantly in the groups at baseline: elevated blood pressure was present in 55% of blacks versus 48% of Hispanics versus 38% of whites (P < .01), whereas 41% of blacks versus 31% of Hispanics versus 25% of whites had elevated total cholesterol (P < .01). Aspirin use (62% of blacks vs 68% of Hispanics vs 72% of whites, P < .01) and statin use (72% of blacks vs 68% of Hispanics vs 77% of whites, P = .03) also varied significantly. In this context, rates by ethnicity for cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke seemed to be no different at 2 years, at 8.8% for the total population: 11.6% for blacks, 8.5% for whites, and 5.0% for Hispanics (P = .32). Fewer blacks (0.6%) had undergone peripheral arterial bypass surgery compared with whites (3.4%) and Hispanics (5.2%) (P = .02). Conclusions: Ethnic-related differences have been documented in the prevalence and treatment of several atherosclerotic risk factors known to be associated with PAD, including a variation in the use of surgical revascularization procedures.

AB - Background: Prior investigations to define ethnic-related differences in the risks, medical treatment, and outcomes of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have been limited. Methods: The impact of ethnicity on the risk factor profiles, use of evidence-based medical therapies, and 2-year cardiovascular outcomes were investigated in 2,168 individuals (blacks n = 237, Hispanics n = 115, whites n = 1,816) from the United States with PAD from the international Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health Registry. Results: Blacks and Hispanics were more likely to have diabetes mellitus and hypertension, whereas whites had a higher rate of diagnosed hypercholesterolemia. Control of blood pressure and cholesterol levels differed significantly in the groups at baseline: elevated blood pressure was present in 55% of blacks versus 48% of Hispanics versus 38% of whites (P < .01), whereas 41% of blacks versus 31% of Hispanics versus 25% of whites had elevated total cholesterol (P < .01). Aspirin use (62% of blacks vs 68% of Hispanics vs 72% of whites, P < .01) and statin use (72% of blacks vs 68% of Hispanics vs 77% of whites, P = .03) also varied significantly. In this context, rates by ethnicity for cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke seemed to be no different at 2 years, at 8.8% for the total population: 11.6% for blacks, 8.5% for whites, and 5.0% for Hispanics (P = .32). Fewer blacks (0.6%) had undergone peripheral arterial bypass surgery compared with whites (3.4%) and Hispanics (5.2%) (P = .02). Conclusions: Ethnic-related differences have been documented in the prevalence and treatment of several atherosclerotic risk factors known to be associated with PAD, including a variation in the use of surgical revascularization procedures.

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