Evaluating the accuracy of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) logical memory embedded validity index for detecting invalid test performance

Jason R. Soble, Kathleen M. Bain, K. Chase Bailey, Joshua W. Kirton, Janice C. Marceaux, Edan A. Critchfield, Karin J.M. McCoy, Justin J.F. O’Rourke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Scopus citations


Embedded performance validity tests (PVTs) allow for continuous assessment of invalid performance throughout neuropsychological test batteries. This study evaluated the utility of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) Logical Memory (LM) Recognition score as an embedded PVT using the Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for WAIS-IV/WMS-IV Effort System. This mixed clinical sample was comprised of 97 total participants, 71 of whom were classified as valid and 26 as invalid based on three well-validated, freestanding criterion PVTs. Overall, the LM embedded PVT demonstrated poor concordance with the criterion PVTs and unacceptable psychometric properties using ACS validity base rates (42% sensitivity/79% specificity). Moreover, 15–39% of participants obtained an invalid ACS base rate despite having a normatively-intact age-corrected LM Recognition total score. Receiving operating characteristic curve analysis revealed a Recognition total score cutoff of < 61% correct improved specificity (92%) while sensitivity remained weak (31%). Thus, results indicated the LM Recognition embedded PVT is not appropriate for use from an evidence-based perspective, and that clinicians may be faced with reconciling how a normatively intact cognitive performance on the Recognition subtest could simultaneously reflect invalid performance validity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalApplied Neuropsychology:Adult
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 6 2018



  • Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS)
  • neuropsychological Assessment; performance Validity
  • psychometrics
  • Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

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