Extended follow-up of long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Ching Hon Pui, Cheng Cheng, Wing Leung, Shesh N. Rai, Gaston K. Rivera, John T. Sandlund, Raul C. Ribeiro, Mary V. Relling, Larry E. Kun, William E. Evans, Melissa M. Hudson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Children who survive acute lymphoblastic leukemia are at risk for leukemia-related or treatment-related complications, which can adversely affect survival and socioeconomic status. We determined the long-term survival and the rates of health insurance coverage, marriage, and employment among patients who had attained at least 10 years of event-free survival. METHODS: A total of 856 eligible patients were treated between 1962 and 1992 in 13 consecutive clinical trials. Survival rates, the cumulative risk of a second neoplasm, and selected indicators of socioeconomic status were analyzed for the entire group and for patients who did or did not receive cranial or craniospinal radiation therapy during initial treatment. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients had major adverse events, including 8 deaths during remission, 4 relapses, and 44 second neoplasms (41 of them radiation-related); most of the second neoplasms were benign or of a low grade of malignant potential. The risk of a second neoplasm was significantly higher in the 597 patients who received radiation therapy (irradiated group) than in the 259 patients who did not receive radiation therapy (non-irradiated group) (P=0.04; estimated cumulative risk [±SE] at 20 years, 20.9±3.9 percent vs. 0.95±0.9 percent). The death rate for the irradiated group slightly exceeded the expected rate in the general U.S. population (standardized mortality ratio, 1.90; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.12 to 3.00), whereas that for the nonirradiated group did not differ from the population norm (standardized mortality ratio, 1.75; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.34 to 5.00). The rates of health insurance coverage, marriage, and employment in the nonirradiated group were similar to the age- and sex-adjusted national averages. Despite having health insurance rates similar to those in the general population, men and women in the irradiated group had higher-than-average unemployment rates (15.1 percent vs. 5.4 percent and 35.4 percent vs. 5.2 percent, respectively), and women in the irradiated group were less likely to be married (35.2 percent vs. 48.8 percent). CONCLUSIONS: Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who did not receive radiation therapy and who have attained 10 or more years of event-free survival can expect a normal long-term survival. Irradiation is associated with the development of second neoplasms, a slight excess in mortality, and an increased unemployment rate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)640-649
Number of pages10
JournalNew England Journal of Medicine
Volume349
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 14 2003

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Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
Second Primary Neoplasms
Survivors
Radiotherapy
Health Insurance
Insurance Coverage
Unemployment
Mortality
Marriage
Social Class
Disease-Free Survival
Survival Rate
Confidence Intervals
Population
Survival
Leukemia
Clinical Trials
Radiation
Recurrence
Therapeutics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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Pui, C. H., Cheng, C., Leung, W., Rai, S. N., Rivera, G. K., Sandlund, J. T., ... Hudson, M. M. (2003). Extended follow-up of long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. New England Journal of Medicine, 349(7), 640-649. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa035091

Extended follow-up of long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. / Pui, Ching Hon; Cheng, Cheng; Leung, Wing; Rai, Shesh N.; Rivera, Gaston K.; Sandlund, John T.; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Relling, Mary V.; Kun, Larry E.; Evans, William E.; Hudson, Melissa M.

In: New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 349, No. 7, 14.08.2003, p. 640-649.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pui, CH, Cheng, C, Leung, W, Rai, SN, Rivera, GK, Sandlund, JT, Ribeiro, RC, Relling, MV, Kun, LE, Evans, WE & Hudson, MM 2003, 'Extended follow-up of long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia', New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 349, no. 7, pp. 640-649. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa035091
Pui, Ching Hon ; Cheng, Cheng ; Leung, Wing ; Rai, Shesh N. ; Rivera, Gaston K. ; Sandlund, John T. ; Ribeiro, Raul C. ; Relling, Mary V. ; Kun, Larry E. ; Evans, William E. ; Hudson, Melissa M. / Extended follow-up of long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In: New England Journal of Medicine. 2003 ; Vol. 349, No. 7. pp. 640-649.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Children who survive acute lymphoblastic leukemia are at risk for leukemia-related or treatment-related complications, which can adversely affect survival and socioeconomic status. We determined the long-term survival and the rates of health insurance coverage, marriage, and employment among patients who had attained at least 10 years of event-free survival. METHODS: A total of 856 eligible patients were treated between 1962 and 1992 in 13 consecutive clinical trials. Survival rates, the cumulative risk of a second neoplasm, and selected indicators of socioeconomic status were analyzed for the entire group and for patients who did or did not receive cranial or craniospinal radiation therapy during initial treatment. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients had major adverse events, including 8 deaths during remission, 4 relapses, and 44 second neoplasms (41 of them radiation-related); most of the second neoplasms were benign or of a low grade of malignant potential. The risk of a second neoplasm was significantly higher in the 597 patients who received radiation therapy (irradiated group) than in the 259 patients who did not receive radiation therapy (non-irradiated group) (P=0.04; estimated cumulative risk [±SE] at 20 years, 20.9±3.9 percent vs. 0.95±0.9 percent). The death rate for the irradiated group slightly exceeded the expected rate in the general U.S. population (standardized mortality ratio, 1.90; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.12 to 3.00), whereas that for the nonirradiated group did not differ from the population norm (standardized mortality ratio, 1.75; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.34 to 5.00). The rates of health insurance coverage, marriage, and employment in the nonirradiated group were similar to the age- and sex-adjusted national averages. Despite having health insurance rates similar to those in the general population, men and women in the irradiated group had higher-than-average unemployment rates (15.1 percent vs. 5.4 percent and 35.4 percent vs. 5.2 percent, respectively), and women in the irradiated group were less likely to be married (35.2 percent vs. 48.8 percent). CONCLUSIONS: Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who did not receive radiation therapy and who have attained 10 or more years of event-free survival can expect a normal long-term survival. Irradiation is associated with the development of second neoplasms, a slight excess in mortality, and an increased unemployment rate.",
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T1 - Extended follow-up of long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

AU - Pui, Ching Hon

AU - Cheng, Cheng

AU - Leung, Wing

AU - Rai, Shesh N.

AU - Rivera, Gaston K.

AU - Sandlund, John T.

AU - Ribeiro, Raul C.

AU - Relling, Mary V.

AU - Kun, Larry E.

AU - Evans, William E.

AU - Hudson, Melissa M.

PY - 2003/8/14

Y1 - 2003/8/14

N2 - BACKGROUND: Children who survive acute lymphoblastic leukemia are at risk for leukemia-related or treatment-related complications, which can adversely affect survival and socioeconomic status. We determined the long-term survival and the rates of health insurance coverage, marriage, and employment among patients who had attained at least 10 years of event-free survival. METHODS: A total of 856 eligible patients were treated between 1962 and 1992 in 13 consecutive clinical trials. Survival rates, the cumulative risk of a second neoplasm, and selected indicators of socioeconomic status were analyzed for the entire group and for patients who did or did not receive cranial or craniospinal radiation therapy during initial treatment. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients had major adverse events, including 8 deaths during remission, 4 relapses, and 44 second neoplasms (41 of them radiation-related); most of the second neoplasms were benign or of a low grade of malignant potential. The risk of a second neoplasm was significantly higher in the 597 patients who received radiation therapy (irradiated group) than in the 259 patients who did not receive radiation therapy (non-irradiated group) (P=0.04; estimated cumulative risk [±SE] at 20 years, 20.9±3.9 percent vs. 0.95±0.9 percent). The death rate for the irradiated group slightly exceeded the expected rate in the general U.S. population (standardized mortality ratio, 1.90; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.12 to 3.00), whereas that for the nonirradiated group did not differ from the population norm (standardized mortality ratio, 1.75; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.34 to 5.00). The rates of health insurance coverage, marriage, and employment in the nonirradiated group were similar to the age- and sex-adjusted national averages. Despite having health insurance rates similar to those in the general population, men and women in the irradiated group had higher-than-average unemployment rates (15.1 percent vs. 5.4 percent and 35.4 percent vs. 5.2 percent, respectively), and women in the irradiated group were less likely to be married (35.2 percent vs. 48.8 percent). CONCLUSIONS: Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who did not receive radiation therapy and who have attained 10 or more years of event-free survival can expect a normal long-term survival. Irradiation is associated with the development of second neoplasms, a slight excess in mortality, and an increased unemployment rate.

AB - BACKGROUND: Children who survive acute lymphoblastic leukemia are at risk for leukemia-related or treatment-related complications, which can adversely affect survival and socioeconomic status. We determined the long-term survival and the rates of health insurance coverage, marriage, and employment among patients who had attained at least 10 years of event-free survival. METHODS: A total of 856 eligible patients were treated between 1962 and 1992 in 13 consecutive clinical trials. Survival rates, the cumulative risk of a second neoplasm, and selected indicators of socioeconomic status were analyzed for the entire group and for patients who did or did not receive cranial or craniospinal radiation therapy during initial treatment. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients had major adverse events, including 8 deaths during remission, 4 relapses, and 44 second neoplasms (41 of them radiation-related); most of the second neoplasms were benign or of a low grade of malignant potential. The risk of a second neoplasm was significantly higher in the 597 patients who received radiation therapy (irradiated group) than in the 259 patients who did not receive radiation therapy (non-irradiated group) (P=0.04; estimated cumulative risk [±SE] at 20 years, 20.9±3.9 percent vs. 0.95±0.9 percent). The death rate for the irradiated group slightly exceeded the expected rate in the general U.S. population (standardized mortality ratio, 1.90; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.12 to 3.00), whereas that for the nonirradiated group did not differ from the population norm (standardized mortality ratio, 1.75; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.34 to 5.00). The rates of health insurance coverage, marriage, and employment in the nonirradiated group were similar to the age- and sex-adjusted national averages. Despite having health insurance rates similar to those in the general population, men and women in the irradiated group had higher-than-average unemployment rates (15.1 percent vs. 5.4 percent and 35.4 percent vs. 5.2 percent, respectively), and women in the irradiated group were less likely to be married (35.2 percent vs. 48.8 percent). CONCLUSIONS: Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who did not receive radiation therapy and who have attained 10 or more years of event-free survival can expect a normal long-term survival. Irradiation is associated with the development of second neoplasms, a slight excess in mortality, and an increased unemployment rate.

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