Background and Objectives: The aim of minimally invasive approaches to vesicoureteral reflux, such as endoscopic trigonoplasty, is to lower the morbidity of open procedures without compromising the results. Initial successes have not been sustained, mainly because of trigonal splitting, which results in the ureteral orifices returning to their preoperative positions. This study was designed to address trigonal splitting by mobilizing the ureters before repositioning them and to evaluate the feasibility of accomplishing this intravesically with 2- to 3-mm endoscopic mini-instruments. Methods: Bilateral vesicoureteral reflux was surgically created in 10 minipigs. After radiologic confirmation of success 4 weeks later, modified trigonoplasty was performed by endoscopic intravesical mobilization of both ureters and incision of the trigonal mucosa using 2-mm instruments. The ureteral orifices were then advanced toward the midline and sutured in place. The initial surgical techniques were modified to permit the entire procedure to be performed endoscopically in the last four minipigs. Cystograms and intravenous urograms were obtained 4 weeks later. Results: Two minipigs died postoperatively. Six of the remaining eight had persistent reflux, including three of the four in the group treated completely by endoscopic means. None of the dissected ureters showed evidence of stricture or necrosis. Conclusions: Although the procedure was not successful in correcting reflux in this model, this study demonstrates the feasibility of endoscopic ureteral mobilization. With current instrumentation, there is no significant technical obstacle to complete intravesical endoscopic surgery, including ureteral reimplantation.
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