Gender and age interact to affect early outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage

Odera Umeano, Barbara Phillips-Bute, Claire E. Hailey, Wei Sun, Marisa C. Gray, Briana Roulhac-Wilson, David L. McDonagh, Peter G. Kranz, Daniel T. Laskowitz, Michael L. James

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common and devastating form of cerebrovascular disease. In ICH, gender differences in outcomes remain relatively understudied but have been examined in other neurological emergencies. Further, a potential effect of age and gender on outcomes after ICH has not been explored. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that age and gender interact to modify neurological outcomes after ICH. Methods: Adult patients admitted with spontaneous primary supratentorial ICH from July 2007 through April 2010 were assessed via retrospective analysis of an existing stroke database at Duke University. Univariate analysis of collected variables was used to compare gender and outcome. Unfavorable outcome was defined as discharge to hospice or death. Using multivariate regression, the combined effect of age and gender on outcome after ICH was analyzed. Results: In this study population, women were younger (61.1±14.5 versus 65.8±17.3 years, p=0.03) and more likely to have a history of substance abuse (35% versus 8.9%, p<0.0001) compared to men. Multivariable models demonstrated that advancing age had a greater effect on predicting discharge outcome in women compared to men (p=0.02). For younger patients, female sex was protective; however, at ages greater than 60 years, female sex was a risk factor for discharge to hospice or death. Conclusion: While independently associated with discharge to hospice or death after ICH, the interaction effect between gender and age demonstrated significantly stronger correlation with early outcome after ICH in a single center cohort. Prospective study is required to verify these findings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere81664
JournalPloS one
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 27 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General


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