Nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) functions as a mammalian cytosolic pathogen recognition molecule, and variants have been associated with risk for Crohn disease. We recently demonstrated that NOD2 functions as an anti-bacterial factor limiting survival of intracellular invasive bacteria. To gain further insight into the mechanism of NOD2 activation and signal transduction, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening. We demonstrate that GRIM-19, a protein with homology to the NADPH dehydrogenase complex, interacts with endogenous NOD2 in HT29 cells. GRIM-19 is required for NF-κB activation following NOD2-mediated recognition of bacterial muramyl dipeptide. GRIM-19 also controls pathogen invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. GRIM-19 expression is decreased in inflamed mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. GRIM-19 may be a key component in NOD2-mediated innate mucosal responses and serve to regulate intestinal epithelial cell responses to microbes.
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