Purpose: To examine the clinical and gonioscopic findings in patients with glaucoma associated with Sturge-Weber syndrome. Methods: Retrospective review of clinical findings of all patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome who presented between January 1978 and December 2003. Koeppe gonioscopy was performed under general anesthesia and findings were photographed when feasible. Iris color was documented by color sketch or photograph at initial presentation. Fisher exact test was used to determine whether the presence of heterochromia was statistically higher in the glaucomatous group. Results: Fifty-five patients who met inclusion criteria were identified, of whom 44 (80%) had glaucoma. Unilateral glaucoma was diagnosed in 30 eyes and bilateral glaucoma in 14 eyes, yielding 58 eyes with glaucoma and 52 eyes without. Gonioscopic examination revealed distinct anatomic abnormalities in the anterior chamber angle in 32 (55%) of the glaucomatous eyes in contrast to the normal fellow eyes in patients with unilateral glaucoma and to the patients without glaucoma. Heterochromia iridis with darker iris on the glaucomatous side was present in 11 of the 30 patients with unilateral glaucoma (37%, P < .001) but in none of the patients without glaucoma. Conclusion: The characteristics observed in the anterior chamber angle in this large, uniquely examined series are the first reported to the authors' knowledge and may support a role for neural crest derived anomalies in the pathogenesis of glaucoma in these infant eyes. Careful examination for heterochromia iridis may be judicious in these patients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health