Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world; the main cause of death of colorectal cancer is hepatic metastases, which can be treated with hyperthermia using isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP). In this study, we report that mild hyperthermia potently reduced cellular FLIP(long), (c-FLIPL), a major regulator of the death receptor (DR) pathway of apoptosis, thereby enhancing humanized anti-DR4 antibody mapatumumab (Mapa)-mediated mitochondria-independent apoptosis. We observed that overexpression of c-FLIPL in CX-1 cells abrogated the synergistic effect of Mapa and hyperthermia, whereas silencing of c-FLIP in CX-1 cells enhanced Mapa-induced apoptosis. Hyperthermia altered c-FLIPL protein stability without concomitant reductions in FLIP mRNA. Ubiquitination of c-FLIPL was increased by hyperthermia, and proteasome inhibitor MG132 prevented heat-induced downregulation of c-FLIPL. These results suggest the involvement of the ubiquitinproteasome system in this process. We also found lysine residue 195 (K195) to be essential for c-FLIPL ubiquitination and proteolysis, as mutant c-FLIPL lysine 195 arginine (arginine replacing lysine) was left virtually un-ubiquitinated and was refractory to hyperthermia-triggered degradation, and thus partially blocked the synergistic effect of Mapa and hyperthermia. Our observations reveal that hyperthermia transiently reduced c-FLIPL by proteolysis linked to K195 ubiquitination, which contributed to the synergistic effect between Mapa and hyperthermia. This study supports the application of hyperthermia combined with other regimens to treat colorectal hepatic metastases.
- Mitochondria-independent pathway
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Cell Biology
- Cancer Research