Hypothalamic orexin neurons regulate arousal according to energy balance in mice

Akihiro Yamanaka, Carsten T. Beuckmann, Jon T. Willie, Junko Hara, Natsuko Tsujino, Michihiro Mieda, Makoto Tominaga, Ken Ichi Yagami, Fumihiro Sugiyama, Katsutoshi Goto, Masashi Yanagisawa, Takeshi Sakurai

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Abstract

Mammals respond to reduced food availability by becoming more wakeful and active, yet the central pathways regulating arousal and instinctual motor programs (such as food seeking) according to homeostatic need are not well understood. We demonstrate that hypothalamic orexin neurons monitor indicators of energy balance and mediate adaptive augmentation of arousal in response to fasting. Activity of isolated orexin neurons is inhibited by glucose and leptin and stimulated by ghrelin. Orexin expression of normal and ob/ob mice correlates negatively with changes in blood glucose, leptin, and food intake. Transgenic mice, in which orexin neurons are ablated, fail to respond to fasting with increased wakefulness and activity. These findings indicate that orexin neurons provide a crucial link between energy balance and arousal.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)701-713
Number of pages13
JournalNeuron
Volume38
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 5 2003

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

Yamanaka, A., Beuckmann, C. T., Willie, J. T., Hara, J., Tsujino, N., Mieda, M., Tominaga, M., Yagami, K. I., Sugiyama, F., Goto, K., Yanagisawa, M., & Sakurai, T. (2003). Hypothalamic orexin neurons regulate arousal according to energy balance in mice. Neuron, 38(5), 701-713. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0896-6273(03)00331-3