Identification of metabolite biomarkers of the designer hallucinogen 25I-NBOMe in mouse hepatic microsomal preparations and human urine samples associated with clinical intoxication

Justin L. Poklis, Sara K. Dempsey, Kai Liu, Joseph K. Ritter, Carl Wolf, Shijun Zhang, Alphonse Poklis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations

Abstract

'NBOMe' (dimethoxyphenyl-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine) derivatives are a new class of designer hallucinogenic drugs widely available on the Internet. Currently, 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25I-NBOMe) is the most popular abused derivative in the USA. There are little published data on the absorption, metabolism and elimination of 25I-NBOMe, or any of the other NBOMe derivatives. Therefore, there are no definitive metabolite biomarkers. We present the identification of fifteen 25I-NBOMe metabolites in phase I and II mouse hepatic microsomal preparations, and analysis of two human urine samples from 25I-NBOMe-intoxicated patients to test the utility of these metabolites as biomarkers of 25I-NBOMe use. The synthesis of two major urinary metabolites, 2-iodo-4-methoxy-5-[2-[(2-methoxyphenyl) methylamino]ethyl]phenol (2-O-desmethyl-5-I-NBOMe,M5) and 5-iodo-4-methoxy-2-[2-[(2-methoxyphenyl) methylamino]ethyl]phenol (5-O-desmethyl-2-I-NBOMe), is also presented. Seven phase II glucuronidated metabolites of the O-desmethyl or the hydroxylated phase I metabolites were identified. One human urine sample contained 25I-NBOMe as well as all 15 metabolites identified in mouse hepatic microsomal preparations. Another human urine sample contained no parent 25I-NBOMe, but was found to contain three O-desmethyl metabolites. We recommend β-glucuronidase enzymatic hydrolysis of urine prior to 25I-NBOMe screening and the use of M5 as the primary biomarker in drug testing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)607-616
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Analytical Toxicology
Volume39
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2015
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Toxicology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Chemical Health and Safety

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