Background: Little is known regarding the incidence and contributing factors of postdischarge nausea and vomiting in children. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of postdischarge nausea and vomiting in day surgery patients and to identify demographic, intraoperative, and postoperative variables that influence the risk. Methods: In this prospective observational study, a postdischarge questionnaire was administered to parents of ambulatory patients who received anesthesia and the electronic records were reviewed. Results: Of 1041 ambulatory patients who received general anesthesia, 143 (14%) experienced postdischarge nausea and vomiting. Patients who did not receive intraoperative opioids had a lower incidence (8%) than those who received short-acting opioids (14%) (difference of 6%, 95% CI 1.9%-10.2%, P <.001) or long-acting opioids (24%) (difference of 16%, 95% CI 8.1%-24.3%, P <.001). Patients who received short-acting opioids also had a lower incidence than those who received long-acting opioids (difference of 10%, 95% CI 2.2%-18.1%, P <.001). The incidence also differed between those patients who received postdischarge opioids at home (29%) and those who did not (13%) (difference of 16%, 95% CI 7.5%-27.6%, P <.001). There was no association with age, gender, airway management, nitrous oxide use, amount of intravenous fluids, duration of anesthesia, intraoperative antiemetic administration or dosage, length of time from recovery room discharge to first oral intake, or length of ride home from the hospital. Multivariate generalized linear regression analysis confirmed intraoperative (short-acting opioids odds ratio 1.686, 95% CI 1.020-2.787; long-acting opioids odds ratio 3.093, 95% CI 1.634-5.874) and postdischarge (odds ratio 2.037 95% CI 1.142-3.632) opioids to be independent risk factors for postdischarge nausea and vomiting. Conclusion: We found an incidence of postdischarge nausea and vomiting of 14%. Intraoperative and postdischarge opioids increase the risk, with long-acting intraoperative opioids further accentuating the risk.
- opioid analgesics
- risk factors
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine