Initial experimental studies of using solid-state photomultiplier for PET applications

Yiping Shao, Hongrui Li, Kanke Gao

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36 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

An evaluation of solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM) has been conducted for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) applications. The single-channel PET detector has been measured for its performance with respect to linearity of light detection, energy resolution, coincidence timing resolution, and depth-of-interaction detection capability. The SSPMs used have a 1×1 mm2 active detection area. At nominal bias, it has a peak sensitivity around 470 nm, typical single photon detection efficiency around 20%, gain about 600,000, dark current 25 μA, and excess noise factor <1.3. A trans-impedance preamplifier was used to read the signal under operating conditions consisted with a balanced energy and timing performance for the PET application. In this initial study, there was a geometry mismatch between the SSPM and LSO crystal with a 2×2 mm2 cross-sectional area, where the light loss could reach 75%. Measured energy and coincidence timing resolutions are 23% and 1.8 ns, respectively, all within the SSPM linear region of photon detection up to ∼250 photoelectrons. The depth-of-interaction (DOI) resolution was measured with two SSPMs detecting lights at both ends of a 1.8×2×20 mm3 LSO crystal, using a conventional electronic collimation method to localize the DOI positions. The measured DOI resolution was 4.5 (+/-0.3) mm, sufficient to develop a PET detector for the measurement of 3D interaction locations. These preliminary measurements have demonstrated the feasibility of using SSPMs for PET applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)944-950
Number of pages7
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Volume580
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2007

Fingerprint

Positron emission tomography
Photomultipliers
positrons
tomography
solid state
time measurement
interactions
Photons
Detectors
Crystals
Dark currents
preamplifiers
detectors
photons
collimation
Photoelectrons
dark current
luminaires
crystals
linearity

Keywords

  • Depth-of-interaction (DOI)
  • Positron emission tomography (PET)
  • Scintillator detector
  • Silicon photomultiplier
  • Solid-state photomultiplier

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics

Cite this

@article{4cc9fe5cb8b747fbac051a2564b23bed,
title = "Initial experimental studies of using solid-state photomultiplier for PET applications",
abstract = "An evaluation of solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM) has been conducted for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) applications. The single-channel PET detector has been measured for its performance with respect to linearity of light detection, energy resolution, coincidence timing resolution, and depth-of-interaction detection capability. The SSPMs used have a 1×1 mm2 active detection area. At nominal bias, it has a peak sensitivity around 470 nm, typical single photon detection efficiency around 20{\%}, gain about 600,000, dark current 25 μA, and excess noise factor <1.3. A trans-impedance preamplifier was used to read the signal under operating conditions consisted with a balanced energy and timing performance for the PET application. In this initial study, there was a geometry mismatch between the SSPM and LSO crystal with a 2×2 mm2 cross-sectional area, where the light loss could reach 75{\%}. Measured energy and coincidence timing resolutions are 23{\%} and 1.8 ns, respectively, all within the SSPM linear region of photon detection up to ∼250 photoelectrons. The depth-of-interaction (DOI) resolution was measured with two SSPMs detecting lights at both ends of a 1.8×2×20 mm3 LSO crystal, using a conventional electronic collimation method to localize the DOI positions. The measured DOI resolution was 4.5 (+/-0.3) mm, sufficient to develop a PET detector for the measurement of 3D interaction locations. These preliminary measurements have demonstrated the feasibility of using SSPMs for PET applications.",
keywords = "Depth-of-interaction (DOI), Positron emission tomography (PET), Scintillator detector, Silicon photomultiplier, Solid-state photomultiplier",
author = "Yiping Shao and Hongrui Li and Kanke Gao",
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AU - Shao, Yiping

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N2 - An evaluation of solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM) has been conducted for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) applications. The single-channel PET detector has been measured for its performance with respect to linearity of light detection, energy resolution, coincidence timing resolution, and depth-of-interaction detection capability. The SSPMs used have a 1×1 mm2 active detection area. At nominal bias, it has a peak sensitivity around 470 nm, typical single photon detection efficiency around 20%, gain about 600,000, dark current 25 μA, and excess noise factor <1.3. A trans-impedance preamplifier was used to read the signal under operating conditions consisted with a balanced energy and timing performance for the PET application. In this initial study, there was a geometry mismatch between the SSPM and LSO crystal with a 2×2 mm2 cross-sectional area, where the light loss could reach 75%. Measured energy and coincidence timing resolutions are 23% and 1.8 ns, respectively, all within the SSPM linear region of photon detection up to ∼250 photoelectrons. The depth-of-interaction (DOI) resolution was measured with two SSPMs detecting lights at both ends of a 1.8×2×20 mm3 LSO crystal, using a conventional electronic collimation method to localize the DOI positions. The measured DOI resolution was 4.5 (+/-0.3) mm, sufficient to develop a PET detector for the measurement of 3D interaction locations. These preliminary measurements have demonstrated the feasibility of using SSPMs for PET applications.

AB - An evaluation of solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM) has been conducted for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) applications. The single-channel PET detector has been measured for its performance with respect to linearity of light detection, energy resolution, coincidence timing resolution, and depth-of-interaction detection capability. The SSPMs used have a 1×1 mm2 active detection area. At nominal bias, it has a peak sensitivity around 470 nm, typical single photon detection efficiency around 20%, gain about 600,000, dark current 25 μA, and excess noise factor <1.3. A trans-impedance preamplifier was used to read the signal under operating conditions consisted with a balanced energy and timing performance for the PET application. In this initial study, there was a geometry mismatch between the SSPM and LSO crystal with a 2×2 mm2 cross-sectional area, where the light loss could reach 75%. Measured energy and coincidence timing resolutions are 23% and 1.8 ns, respectively, all within the SSPM linear region of photon detection up to ∼250 photoelectrons. The depth-of-interaction (DOI) resolution was measured with two SSPMs detecting lights at both ends of a 1.8×2×20 mm3 LSO crystal, using a conventional electronic collimation method to localize the DOI positions. The measured DOI resolution was 4.5 (+/-0.3) mm, sufficient to develop a PET detector for the measurement of 3D interaction locations. These preliminary measurements have demonstrated the feasibility of using SSPMs for PET applications.

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