Landmark studies describing the effect of microbial infection on the expression and activity of hepatic CYP3A used bacterial lipopolysaccharide as a model antigen. Our efforts to determine whether these findings were translatable to viral infections led us to observations suggesting that engagement of integrin receptors is key in the initiation of processes responsible for changes in hepatic CYP3A4 during infection and inflammation. Studies outlined in this article were designed to evaluatewhether engagement of integrins, receptors commonly used by a variety of microbes to enter cellular targets, is vital in the regulation of CYP3A in the presence and absence of virus infection. Mice infected with a recombinant adenovirus (AdlacZ) experienced a 70%reduction in hepatic CYP3A catalytic activity. Infection with a mutant virus with integrin-binding arginine-glycine-Aspartic acid (RGD) sequences deleted from the penton base protein of the virus capsid (AdDRGD) did not alterCYP3A activity.CYP3AmRNAand protein levels inAdlacZtreated animals were also suppressed, whereas those of mice given AdDRGD were not significantly different from uninfected control mice. Silencing of the integrin b-subunit reverted adenovirus-mediated CYP3A4 suppression in vitro. Silencing of the a-subunit did not. Suppression of integrin subunits had a profound effect on nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor, whereas retinoid X receptor a was largely unaffected. To our knowledge, this is the first time that extracellular receptors, like integrins, have been indicated in the regulation of CYP3A. This finding has several implications owing to the important role of integrins in normal physiologic process and in many disease states.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmaceutical Science