Background: Intermediate clinical endpoints (ICEs) prognostic for overall survival (OS) are needed for men receiving postprostatectomy radiation therapy (PORT) to improve clinical trial design. Objective: To identify a potential ICE for men receiving PORT. Design, setting, and participants: We performed an institutional review board–approved multi-institutional retrospective study of 566 men consecutively treated with PORT at tertiary care centers from 1986 to 2013. The median follow-up was 8.2 yr. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Biochemical failure (BF), distant metastases (DM), and castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) were evaluated for correlation with OS and assessed as time-dependent variables in a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model and in landmark analyses at 1, 3, 5, and 7 yr after PORT. Cross-validated concordance (c) indices were used to assess model discrimination. Results and limitations: OS at 1, 3, 5, and 7 yr after PORT was 98%, 95%, 90%, and 82%, respectively. In a time-varying model controlling for clinical and pathologic variables, BF (hazard ratio [HR] 2.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45–3.71; p < 0.001), DM (HR 6.52, 95% CI 4.20–10.1; p < 0.001), and CRPC (HR 2.47, 95% CI 1.56–3.92; p < 0.001) were associated with OS. In landmark analyses, 5-yr DM had the highest c index when adjusting for baseline covariates (0.78), with 5-yr DM also providing the greatest increase in discriminatory power over a model only including baseline covariates. These findings require validation in prospective randomized data. Conclusions: While limited by the retrospective nature of the data, 5-yr DM is associated with lower OS following PORT, outperforming the prognostic capability of BF and CRPC at 1, 3, 5, or 7 yr after treatment. Confirmation of this ICE as a surrogate for OS is needed from randomized trial data so that it can be incorporated into future clinical trial design. Patient summary: We assessed potential intermediate clinical endpoints prognostic for overall survival in a cohort of men receiving radiotherapy after prostatectomy. We identified the development of metastatic disease within 5 yr after treatment as the strongest predictor of overall survival. We assessed potential intermediate clinical endpoints prognostic for overall survival in a cohort of men receiving radiotherapy after prostatectomy. We identified the development of metastatic disease within 5 yr after treatment as the strongest predictor of overall survival.
- Intermediate clinical endpoint
- Prostate cancer
- Radiation therapy
ASJC Scopus subject areas