Intravenous pentamidine is safe and effective as primary Pneumocystis pneumonia prophylaxis in children and adolescents undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

James M. Demasi, Jennifer A. Cox, David Leonard, Andrew Y. Koh, Victor M. Aquino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is a potentially lifethreatening but preventable infection that may occur after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Intravenous pentamidine has been used in the prevention of PCP in the post-transplant period, although there are few trials published in the literature evaluating its safety and efficacy. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children who underwent HSCT from January 1, 2005, to October 1, 2011, who received intravenous pentamidine as first-line PCP prophylaxis initiated at admission. Demographic, clinical, microbiologic, management and outcome data were collected. Results: One hundred sixty-seven consecutive HSCTs in 137 pediatric patients were given intravenous pentamidine before myeloablation and then every 28 days until the subject was at least a minimum 30 days post-HSCT, had stable neutrophil engraftment (absolute neutrophil count >1000/mm2 for 3 days without growth factor support) and for allogeneic patients, no evidence of active graft versus host disease and weaning on their immunosuppressive therapy. No cases of PCP were seen in this cohort. Ten (7%) had a grade I side effect of nausea/vomiting requiring slower infusion time and 2 (2%) had a grade IV reaction with anaphylaxis (rash) and hypotension with 1 child requiring transfer to the intensive care unit. Conclusions: Intravenous pentamidine was safe and effective for the prevention of PCP in pediatric HSCT patients. Given the potential neutropenic effects of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, compliance with drug administration and inferior efficacy of other PCP prophylactic medications, intravenous pentamidine should be considered as first-line therapy for the prevention of PCP in children undergoing HSCT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)933-936
Number of pages4
JournalPediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Volume32
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - 2013

Keywords

  • Bone marrow transplantation
  • Oncology
  • Pediatrics
  • Pentamidine
  • Pneumocystis jiroveci

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Microbiology (medical)

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Intravenous pentamidine is safe and effective as primary Pneumocystis pneumonia prophylaxis in children and adolescents undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this