p-Hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PHBH) is an FAD-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of p-hydroxybenzoate (pOHB) to 3,4- dihydroxybenzoate in an NADPH-dependent reaction. Two structural features are coupled to control the reactivity of PHBH with NADPH: a proton-transfer network that allows protons to be passed between the sequestered active site and solvent and a flavin that adopts two positions: "in", where the flavin is near pOHB, and "out", where the flavin is near NADPH. PHBH uses the proton-transfer network to test for the presence of a suitable aromatic substrate before allowing the flavin to adopt the NADPH-accessible conformation. In this work, kinetic analysis of the His72Asn mutant, with a disrupted proton-transfer network, showed that flavin movement could occur in the presence or absence of NADPH but that NADPH stimulated movement to the reactive conformation required for hydride transfer. Substrate and solvent isotope effects on the transient kinetics of reduction of the His72Asn mutant showed that proton transfer was linked to flavin movement and that the conformational change occurred in a step separate from that of hydride transfer. Proton transfers during the reductive half-reaction were observed directly in the wild-type enzyme by performing experiments in the presence of a fluorescent pH-indicator dye in unbuffered solutions. NADPH binding caused rapid proton release from the enzyme, followed by proton uptake after flavin reduction. Solvent and substrate kinetic isotope effects showed that proton-coupled flavin movement and reduction also occurred in different steps in wild-type PHBH. These results allow a detailed kinetic scheme to be proposed for the reductive half-reaction of the wild-type enzyme. Three kinetic models considered for substrate-induced isomerization are analyzed in the Appendix.
ASJC Scopus subject areas