Magnetization exchange with water and T1 relaxation of the downfield resonances in human brain spectra at 3.0 T

Erin L. Macmillan, Daniel G.Q. Chong, Wolfgang Dreher, Anke Henning, Chris Boesch, Roland Kreis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


The use of water suppression for in vivo proton MR spectroscopy diminishes the signal intensities from resonances that undergo magnetization exchange with water, particularly those downfield of water. To investigate these exchangeable resonances, an inversion transfer experiment was performed using the metabolite cycling technique for non-water-suppressed MR spectroscopy from a large brain voxel in 11 healthy volunteers at 3.0 T. The exchange rates of the most prominent peaks downfield of water were found to range from 0.5 to 8.9 s -1, while the T1 relaxation times in absence of exchange were found to range from 175 to 525 ms. These findings may help toward the assignments of the downfield resonances and a better understanding of the sources of contrast in chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging. Magn Reson Med, 2011.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1239-1246
Number of pages8
JournalMagnetic resonance in medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • brain
  • exchangeable protons
  • non-water-suppressed
  • proton MR spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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