Purpose: We compared the efficacy of primary endoscopic decompression versus partial nephrectomy for treating ectopic duplex ureteroceles. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with renal duplication and upper pole ectopic ureterocele. Patients were classified according to the initial radiological evaluation. The operation performed was arbitrarily chosen by the surgeon. Results: A total of 54 patients had unilateral upper or bilateral upper pole ureterocele with no associated vesicoureteral reflux. Partial nephrectomy was performed in 26 patients, of whom 4 (15%) required additional surgery for new onset ipsilateral lower pole reflux. Endoscopic decompression was performed in 28 patients, of whom 18 (64%) required additional treatment due to reflux into the ipsilateral lower pole ureter and ureterocele in 9, reflux into the ureterocele only in 4, ipsilateral lower pole reflux only in 3 and persistent ureterocele obstruction in 2 (p <0.01). An ectopic ureterocele with vesicoureteral reflux into 1 or more moieties was identified in 111 patients, including 56 of 67 (84%) treated with partial nephrectomy and 37 of 44 (84%) treated with endoscopy who have persistent reflux or required further surgery for reflux resolution. Conclusions: In patients with an ectopic ureterocele and no vesicoureteral reflux partial nephrectomy should be considered the treatment of choice. However, when the initial cystogram reveals vesicoureteral reflux, partial nephrectomy and endoscopic ureterocele decompression have identical definitive cure rates of only 16%. The majority of the latter patients require continued observation and/or additional surgery for managing persistent reflux.
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